The Illinois River Natural History survey has a rich history in the Havana area dating back to 1876 when Stephen A Forbes began his biological collections, leading to the establishment of the Stephen A. Forbes Biological Station in 1940. A more complete history can be found on our "History" link to the left.
Keeping ties with our illustrious past is very important while moving forward and taking on the modern challenges of the ecology of the Illinois River and other large river systems. For this reason we have provided the following document to provide a better understanding of the vast amount of work done by History Survey staff near Havana, IL.
The IRBS also has a Google Scholoar online database that lists many of the publications by Illinois Natural History Survey's current and alumni staff from the Havana area. This database allows users to search for authors, papers, and citations from the scientific community.
The Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS) has a vast library of books, reports, publications and other documents available at the INHS library found at the following link:
In addition to the Illinois River Resources Bibliography and the INHS library, the IRBS offers a large selection of reprints. To request a reprint, you may do so by mail, telephone, fax or e-mail.
Illinois Natural History Survey
If you choose to e-mail your request, you may email April Burgett at: firstname.lastname@example.org. Don't forget to include the title of the reprint which you are requesting.
Following is a listing of reprints that are available directly from the Illinois River Biological Station:
Helmus, M.R., and Sass, G.G. 2008. The rapid effects of a whole-lake reduction of coarse woody debris on fish and benthic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 53:1423-1433.
Abstract--1. Ecosytems can enhance the biodiversity of adjacent ecosystems through subsidies of prey, nutrients and also habitat. For example, trees can fall into aquatic ecosystems and act as a subsidy that increases aquatic habitat heterogeneity. This habitat subsidy is vulnerable in lakes where anthropogenic development of shorelines coincides with a thinning of riparian forests and the removal of these dead trees (termed coarse woody debris: CWD). How the distruption of this subsidy affects lake ecosystems is not well understood. 2. We performed a whole ecosystem experiment on Little Rock Lake, a small (18 ha), undeveloped, and unfished lake in Vilas County, WI, U.S.A., that is divided into two similar-sized basins by a double poly-vinyl chloride curtain that prevents both fish and water exchange between basins. In 2002, we removed about 70% of the littoral CWD in the treatment basin, while the reference basin was left unaltered. We tested for changes in both fish and benthic macroinvertebrate community composition in the two years following the CWD reduction. 3. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) was the most abundant fish species in the lake prior to our experiment, but declined to very low densities in the treatment basin after manipulation. We found no evidence of an effect on macroinvertebrates -- the treatment basin's macroinvertebrate community composition, diversity and density did not change relative to the reference basin. 4. Our results indicate that different trophic groups may have differential repsones to the loss of a habitat subsidy, even if anthropogenic effects on that subsidy are severe. In the case of Little Rock Lake, fish community responses were evident on a short-time scale, whereas the macroinvertebrate community did not rapidly change following CWD reduction.
Roth, B.M., Kaplan, I.C., Sass, G.G., Johnson, P.T., Marburg, A.E., Yannarell, A.C., Havlicek, T.D., Willis, T.V., Turner, MG., and Carpenter, S.R. 2007. Linking terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems: the role of woody habitat in lake food webs. Ecological Monitoring 203:439-452.
Sass, G.G., Gille, C.M., Hinke, J.T., and Kitchell, J.F. 2006. Whole-lake influences of littoral structural complexity and prey body morphology on fish predator-prey interactions. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 15:301-308.
Sass, G.G., Ketchell, J.F., James, F., Carpenter, S.R., Hrabik, T.R., Marburg, A.E., and Turner, MG. 2006. Fish community and foodweb responses to a whole-lake removal of coarse woody habitat. Fisheries 31(7):321-330.
Bartels, A., Bowler, M.C., DeLain, S., Gittinger, E., Herzog, D., Irons, K., Maurel, K. O'hara, T.M., Ratcliff, E., and Ridings, J. 2006. 2005 Annual Status Report: a summary of fish data in six reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin. An LTRMP Web-based report.
Irons, K.S., McClelland, M.A. and Pegg, M.A. 2006. Expansion of round goby in the Illinois Waterway. American Midland Naturalist 156:198-200.
Abstract--Round goby Neogobius melanostomus is expanding its range within Illinois. Prior to 2004, the round goby existed primarily in the Lake Michigan waters of the Illinois and was slowly moving inland via the Illinois Waterway. Two fish community monitoring programs, administered by the Illinois Natural History Survey's Illinois River Biological Station, have detected this fish species as it further expanded its range in the Waterway. Although little is known how this non-native benthic fish could threaten ecosystems in Illinois, the rate of invasion appears to be quickening.
Irons, K.S., and Pegg, M.A. 2006. Assessing the ability of a long-term fish monitoring program to detect effects of dredged material placement within the Upper Mississippi River System. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Aquatic Ecology Technical Report 2006/01. 65 p.
McClelland, M.A., Pegg, M.A., and Spier, T.W. 2006. Longitudinal patterns of the Illinois Waterway fish community. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 21(1):91-99.
Abstract--the Illinois Waterway can be divided into two segments - an upper region of steep gradient with a rocky substrate and narrow basin and a lower region of shallow gradient with a wide, complex floodplain. We hypothesized that fish abundance and species diversity would be much greater and community structure would differ by species relative abundance and biomass in the lower segment of the waterway given its much greater acreage, habitat availability, and habitat diversity. Patterns in fish species composition and abundance along six reaches of the Illinois Waterway were described from a 15-year (1989-2004) fish monitoring record. Fish numbers in terms of relative abundance and biomass followed expected patterns in most instances; however, overall fish abundances and forage species abundances were greater in the upper river. Longitudinal differences in species relative abundance and biomass were also detected, illustrating a distinct community change between the upper and lower river segments of the system.
Pegg, M.A., Irons, K.S., O'Hara, T.M., and McClelland, M.A. 2006. Lake Chautauqua habitat rehabilitation and enhancement project fisheries response. Contract report submitted to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Rock Island, IL by the U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin. 27 p.
Pegg, M.A., Irons, K.S., O'Hara, T.M., and McClelland, M.A. 2006. Initial response of a floodplain lake fish community to water-level stabilization. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 15:40-47.
Bartels, A., Bowler, M.C., DeLain, S., Gittinger, E., Herzog, D., Irons, K., Maurel, K. O'Hara, T.M., Ratcliff, E., and Ridings, J. 2005. 2004 Annual Status Report: a summary of fish data in six reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin. An LTRMP Web-based report.
Ickes, B.S., Bowler, M.C., Bartels, A.D., Kirby, D.J., DeLain, S., Chick, J.H., Barko, V.A., Irons, K.S., and Pegg, M.A. 2005. Multiyear synthesis of the fish component from 1993 to 2002 for the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin. An LTRMP Web-based report.
Taylor, R.M., Pegg, M.A., and Chick, J.H. 2005. Response of bighead carp to a bioacoustic behavioural fish guidance system. Fisheries Management and Ecology 12:283-286.
Abstract--The introduction and spread of non-indigenous fishes to the inland waters of North America has increased dramatically during the past 150 years (Nico & Fuller 1999), and predicting the consequences of new introductions is extremely difficult. However, the potential ecological and economic impacts could be substantial and likely will create new management concerns if viable populations are established. Consequently, the search for effective and economical control mechanisms to block the movements of invasive fishes remains one of the greatest challenges of fisheries management (Popper & Carlson 1998).
One type of technology that has proven effective in altering fish movements is a hybrid Sound Projector Array driven BioAcoustic Fish Fence system (APS driven BAFF; Maes, Turnpenny, Lambert, Nedwell, Parmentier & Ollevier 2004). The SPA driven BAFF system (Fish Guidance Systems Ltd, UK), employs an air bubble curtain that also contains pneumatically generated sound signals randomly selected from a predetermined frequency range. The basic concept is that the sound chirps become effectively trapped within the bubble curtain. This entrapment provides a significant deterrent in the immediate area of the device, but also results in sound pressure levels only about one-tenth of that in the centre of the curtain at a distance of 5 m from the barrier (Welton, Beaumont, & Ladle 2002). Therefore, the composite sound and bubble curtain creates a sharply defined barrier that can be used to keep fish away from areas where their presence is unwanted. However, this integrated sound-bubble technology has not been used as a cross-channel barrier to stop fish from moving upstream or downstream. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of the SPA driven BAFF system in restricting the movements of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson). The bighead carp is a large-bodied, filter-feeding species that is establishing new populations and causing ecological and management concerns in the mid-western United States (Chick & Pegg 2001).
Cook, T.R., and Pegg, M.A. 2004. An Introduction to the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program of the Upper Mississippi River System. River Crossings (Summer issue).
Cook, T.R., and Pegg, M.A. 2004. An Introduction to the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program of the Upper Mississippi River System. Mississippi River Monitor (June issue).
Elderkin, C.L., Stoeckel, J.A., Klerks, P.L., and Berg, D.J. 2004. Heritability of heat tolerance in zebra mussel veligers. Journal of Great Lakes Research 30:360-366.
Pegg, M.A. McClelland M.A. 2004. Spatial and temporal patterns in fish communities along the Illinois River. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 13:125-133.
Stoeckel, J.A. Rehmann C.R. Schneider D.W. Padilla D.K. 2004. Retention and supply of zebra mussel larvae in a large river system importance of an upstream lake. Freshwater Biology 49:919-930.
Burkhardt,R.W., Sauer,J.S., DeLain, S., Bartels, A., Bowler, M.C., Ratcliff, E., Herzog, D.P., Irons, K.S., and O'Hara, T.M. 2000 Annual Status Report: A summary of fish data in six reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin. An LTRMP Web-based report.
Burkhardt, R.W., Sauer,J.S., DeLain, S., Bartels, A., Bowler, M.C., Ratcliff, E., Herzog, D.P., Irons, K.S., and O'Hara, T.M. 2001 Annual Status Report: A summary of fish data in six reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin. An LTRMP Web-based report.
Ickes, B., Sauer,J.S., DeLain, S., Bartels, A., Bowler, M.C., Ratcliff, E., Herzog, D.P., Irons, K.S., and O'Hara, T.M. 2002 Annual Status Report: A summary of fish data in six reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin. An LTRMP Web-based report.
Chick, J.H. and Pegg, M.A. 2004. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Outpool Fisheries Analysis Final report. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, LaCrosse, Wisconsin. March 2004. LTRMP 2004-T001. 28 p.
Pegg, M.A., Irons, K.S., O'Hara, T.M., and McClelland, M.A. 2004. Fish community responses to habitat restoration practices at Chautauqua National Fish and Wildlife Refuge. Final report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Rock Island District.
Pierce, C.L., Guy, C.S., Pegg, M.A., and Braaten, P.J. 2004. Fish Growth, Mortality, Recruitment, Condition, and Size Structure. Volume 4. Population Structure and Habitat Use of Benthic Fishes Along the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone Rivers. U.S. Geological Survey, Cooperative Research Units, Iowa State University; 135 p.
Holtrop, A.M., and Pegg, M.A., editors. 2004. Illinois River Ecosystem Restoration Monitoring and Watershed Assessment Framework. Final Report to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Rock Island District (Illinois Natural History Survey Technical Report 04/05); 339 p.
McClelland, M.A., and Pegg, M.A. 2004. The long-term Illinois River fish population monitoring program. Final report to the Illinois Department of Natural Resources Project F-101-R-11-15 (Illinois Natural History Survey Technical Report 04/03).
McClelland, M.A., and Pegg, M.A. 2004. Spatial and temporal patterns in fish communities along the Illinois River. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 13:125-135.
Abstract--Fish abundance data from a fish population study (1957-2000) on the Illinois River, IL, USA were used to assess community structure. There was considerable variability among reaches and years, but three distinct fish communities were identified encompassing both temporal and spatial aspects. Temporal community shifts in the upper half of the river created two distinct fish communities, one prior to 1983 and the other after 1983. This is believed to be in response to improved water quality, albeit the responses were delayed for several years after policy implementation. The third group (Lower River) was spatially separated from the two upper river groups. These differences may reflect a combination of water quality (e.g., pollution) and habitat issues (e.g., geomorphology), common to many regulated rivers. Fish community responses in larger rivers may have considerable temporal lags after implementation of management or restoration activities that warrant strong consideration during any planning process.
Barko, V.A. Hrabik, R.A., Herzog, D.P., Ickes, B.S., Chick, J.H., and Pegg, M.A.. 2003. Spatial, temporal, and environmental trends of fish assemblages inhabiting the Upper Mississippi River System from 1993 - 2001. Final report submitted to USGS - Upper Midwest Environmental Science Center.
Sampson, S., Chick, J.H., and Pegg, M.A. 2003. Bighead Carp in the Upper Mississippi River: Competition with Native Filter-Feeding Fishes and Potential Threats to the Great Lakes. Annual report submitted to Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant College Program.
Pegg, M.A., Taylor, R.M., and Chick, J.H. 2003. Aquatic nuisance species: An evaluation of barriers for preventing the spread of bighead carp to the Great Lakes. Annual report submitted to the National Sea Grant College Program.
Pegg, M.A. 2003. Survey of American Fisheries Society participation by North Central Division Chapter members. Final report submitted to the North Central Division American Fisheries Society.
Janvrin, J., Green, G., Buhr, V., Perk, R., Westphall, K., and Pegg, M.A. 2003. Upper Mississippi River habitat restoration case study. Proceedings of the Western Dredging Association 35:28-42.
Lemke, A.M., Stoeckel, J.A., and Pegg, M.A. 2003. Utilization of the exotic cladoceran, Daphnia lumholtzi, by young-of-year fishes in an Illinois River floodplain lake. Journal of Fish Biology 62:938-954.
Pegg, M.A., Pierce, C.L., and Roy, A. 2003. Effects of channelization and impoundment on flow in the Missouri River: a time series analysis of daily mean flow. Aquatic Sciences 65:63-72.
Taylor, R.M., Pegg, M.A., and Chick, J.H. 2003. Some observations on the effectiveness of two behavioral fish guidance systems for preventing the spread of bighead carp to the Great Lakes. Aquatic Invaders 14:1-5.
Arnold, J.A. 2002. Sediment and nutrient loading in La Grange Reach of the Illinois River. Proceedings of the 2001 Governor's Conference on the Illinois River. Special Report 27. P. 73-77.
Irons, K.S., O'Hara, T.M., McClelland, M.A., and Pegg, M.A. 2002. White perch occurrence, spread, and hybridization in the middle Illinois River, Upper Mississippi River System. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 95:207-214.
Koel, T.M., and Sparks, R.E. 2002. Historical patterns of river stage and fish communities as criteria for operations of dams on the Illinois River. River Research and Applications 18:3-19.
Abstract--The hydrologic regime of the Illinois River has been altered over the past 100 years. Locks and dams regulate water surface elevations and flow, enabling commercial navigation to continue year round. This study relates changes in water surface elevation to fish abundance in the river, and establishes target criteria for operating locks and dams. Using long-term records of daily river stage, we identified ecologically meaningful hydrological parameters for eight gage locations along the Illinois River. Inter-annual variability of a long-term fisheries dataset beginning in 1957 was related to variability in stage, flood and recession duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change of water levels. Reversals in water surface elevation, maximum stage levels, and length of the spring flood were the most important parameters influencing abundance of age-zero fishes in annual collections, Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), black crappie (Pomoxia nigromaculatus), freshwater drum (Apoldinotus grunneins), and white bass (Morone chysops) were most abundant in samples during years that approximated the natural water level regime. Of the 33 hydrologic parameters evaluated for the entire water year from an Illinois River gage site on La Grange Reach, all except average stage in January and Julian date (JD) of maximum stage and moderate or high hydrologic alteration based on the historical range of variation (RVA). The highest degree of hydrologic alteration was for minimum stage levels (1-day, 3-day, and 7-day), rate-of-rise, and rate-of-fall. Other parameters that have been severely altered were 30-day minimum stage, 90-day maximum stage, and the annual number of water level reversals. Operations of the La Grange and Peoria locks and dams could be modified so water level variability would approximate that of the late 1800s, when fish and wildlife resources were abundant. The water regime could be regulated to maintain navigation and improve conditions for native plants and animals without increasing flood damages.
Koel, T.M., and Stevenson, K.E. 2002. Effects of dredge material placement on benthic macroinvertebrates of the Illinois River. Hydrobiologia 474:229-238.
Pegg, M.A., and Pierce, C.L. 2002. Fish community structure in the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone rivers in relation to flow characteristics. Hydrobiologia 479:155-167.
Abstract--Human alteration is commonplace among large rivers and often results in changes in the flow regime which can lead to changes in fish community structure. We explored the features of fish community structure, morphological characteristics, functional composition, and life-history attributes in relation to six unique flow regimes in the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers where we found significant differences in community composition and abundance. The clearest pattern was the distinction between the channelized portion of the river below the mainstem reservoirs and all other parts of the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers due to a marked reduction of species richness above the reservoirs. We also found morphological, functional, and life-history differences among the flow units, with the inter-reservoir communities consisting of slightly more generalist characteristics. Our results suggest some relation between flow and fish community structure, but that human alteration may have the strongest influence in distinguishing community differences in the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers.
Pegg, M.A., and Pierce, C.L. 2002. Classification of reaches in the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone rivers based on flow characteristics. River Research and Applications 18:31-42.
Pegg, M.A., Lemke, A.M., and Stoeckel, J.A. 2002. Establishment of bighead carp in an Illinois River floodplain lake: a potential source population for the Illinois River. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 17(1):161-163.
Abstract--The bighead carp (Hypopthalmychthys nobilis) is a recent invasive species along the mainstem Illinois River and has been found in increasing numbers over the past few years. We found that young-of-year bighead carp produced in Lake Chautauqua, a floodplain lake that maintains some connection to the Illinois River, may be a source population to the mainstem Illinois River. Catch rates of bighead carp increased from incidental in 1996 to 10% of the total catch in 2000.
Pegg, M.A. 2002. Invasion and transport of non-native aquatic species in the Illinois River. Proceedings of the 2001 Governor's Conference on the Management of the Illinois River System. Special Report 27. P. 203-209.
Quist, M.C., Guy, C.S., Pegg, M.A., Braaten, P.J., Pierce, C.L., and Travnichek, V.T. 2002. Potential influence of harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the Missouri River System: a case for pro-active management. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:537-549.
Chick, J.H., and Pegg, M.A. 2001. Invasive carp in the Mississippi River Basin. Science 292:2250-2251.
Koel, T.M. 2001. Classification of Upper Mississippi River pools based on contiguous aquatic/geomorphic habitats. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 16:159-170.
Pegg, M.A., and Pierce, C.L. 2001. Growth rate responses of Missouri and Lower Yellowstone River fishes to a latitudinal gradient. Journal of Fish Biology 59:1529-1543.
Gutreuter, S., Bartels, A.D., Irons, K.S., and Sandheinrich, M. 1999. Evaluation of the flood-pulse concept based on statistical models of growth of selected fishes of the Upper Mississippi River System. Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56:2282-2291.
Abstract--The flood-pulse concept (FPC) states that annual inundation is the principal force responsible for productivity and biotic interactions in river-flooplain systems. Somatic growth is one component of production, and we hypothesized that, if the FPC applies, growth of fishes that use the moving littoral zone should differ among years with differing flood pattern, whereas nonlittoral fishes would show no such response. Growth of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bludegill (Lepomis macrochirus), species that exploit littoral resources, increased during a year having an unusual warm-season flood in the Upper Mississippi River system and was reduced during low-water years. Growth of white bass (Morone chrysops), which do not rely heavily on the littoral zone, did not differ significantly between the extreme-flood and low-water years. Patterns of growth of black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), which have intermediate dependence on the moving littoral zone, were somewhat ambiguous. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the PFC applies, at least under certain conditions, to this temperate river system. Our results can also provide an important basis from which to assess some costs and benefits of water level management strategies in large regulated temperate rivers.
Elderkin, C.L., Schneider, D.W., Stoeckel, J.A., and Padilla, D.K. 1998. A method for measuring in situ respiration rates of freshwater gastropods. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 17(3):338-347.
Madon, S.P., Schneider, D.W., and Stoeckel, J.A. 1998. In-situ determination of zebra mussel metabolic rates using the electron transport system (ETS) assay. Journal of Shellfish Research 17(1):195-203.
Abstract--We used the electron transport system (ETS) assay to estimate in situ respiration rates of zebra mussels. Laboratory studies revealed a linear relationship (r2 = 0.093) between respiration rates and ETS enzyme activity across all sizes of mussels tested (10-30 mm shell length; 0.03-0.55 g tissue wet mass); ETS activity and respiration rates (mg O2 mussel -1 h-1) were both strongly and similarly related to soft-tissue wet mass (r2>0.92). Zebra mussels used only 6-7% of their ETS for respiration (R); this average R/ETS ratio of 0.06-0.07 did not vary with mussel sizes. Independent statistical tests revealed that the ETS-respiration rate relationship provided accurate estimates of respiration rates in zebra mussel individuals and populations. After calibration of the ETS-respiration rate ratio, we used the relationship to estimate in situ oxygen demand by zebra mussel populations in the Upper Mississippi River. There was a strong relationship between oxygen demand (mg O2 m-2 h-1) and zebra mussel density per square meter (r2 = 0.093, p < 0.0001). A zebra mussel population of approximately 23,000 individuals/m2 is estimated to have an oxygen demand of 9.41 g O2 m-2 d-1, twice as high as that of highly enriched organic deposits. Dense populations of zebra mussels are expected to exert strong demands on the oxygen resources of large rivers.
Madon, S.P., Schneider, D.W., Stoeckel, J.A., and Sparks, R.E. 1998. Effects of inorganic sediment and food concentrations on energetic processes of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorphas: Implications for growth in turbid rivers. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55:401-413. Reprinted by U.S. Geological Survey, Environmental Management Technical Center, Onalaska, WI, September 1998. LTRMP 98-R013. 13 pp.
Abstract--We examined the effects of inorganic suspended sediment (9, 1, 10, and 100 mg-L -1) and food concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 2.0 mg particulate organic matter (POM)-L -1) on clearance, ingestion, respiration, feces, and pseudofeces production rates and assimilation efficiencies of adult zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1degree C. Food quality indices (the proportion of inorganic to organic material in feeding suspensions = IO ratios) ranged from 0.304 to 63.04. Suspended inorganic sediment above 1 mg-L -1 greatly reduced clearance rates, ingestion rates, and assimilation efficiencies of zebra mussels, and ingestion of POM was maintained only at high food concentrations. Pseudofeces were produced copiously by zebra mussels in the 100 mg-L -1 sediment treatment, and there appeared to be an increased metabolic cost associated with pseudofeces production. Declining food quality caused exponential declines in clearance, ingestion, and absorption rates, water processing potential, and assimilation efficiencies, with the sharpest declines between IO ratios of 0.304 and 5.0. IO ratios in turbid rivers often exceed 1.71, our experimental threshold where scope for growth for zebra mussels was zero. We contend that zebra mussels in turbid rivers may exhibit low growth potential and may not stabilize at the high population densities seen in their lake counterparts.
Madon, S.P., Schneider, D.W., Stoeckel, J.A., and Sparks, R.E. 1998. Effects of suspended sediment and food concentrations on energetic processes of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha: implications for long-term success in large floodplain rivers. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55(2):401-413.
Schneider, D.W., Madon, S.P., Stoeckel, J.A., and Sparks, R.E. 1998. Seston quality controls zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) energetics in turbid rivers. Oecologia 117:331-341.
Raibley, P.T., Irons, K.S., O'Hara, T.M., and Blodgett, K.D. 1997. Winter habitats used by largemouth bass in the Illinois River, a large river--floodplain ecosystem. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 17:401-412.
Abstract--During the winter of 1993-1994, we characterized habitats used by 17 radio-tagged largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in La Grange Reach of the Illinois River, a large river--floodplain ecosystem that has been significantly altered from its natural state. Radio-tagged largemouth bass wintered in backwaters, off-channel coves, ditches, and marinas from November through February. Electrofishing mean catch rates were higher in the study areas during winter than in other seasons, indicating fish were more concentrated in these areas during winter. Five of nine study areas received thermal inputs from springs or power plants, but water temperatures in all nine areas were warmer than the main channel during winter. Current velocities averaged 2 cm/s in the study areas and 19 cm/s in the main channel. We did not document movement of radio-tagged fish into the main channel during winter. River levels palyed a major role in determining the suitability of wintering habitats. When river levels declined, temperatures increased and dissolved oxygen levels decreased in smaller areas with thermal inputs. Thousands of fish, including juvenile and adult largemouth bass, suffered winterkill near one study area when they became trapped in a backwater after river levels declined. As sedimentation continues to fill in backwaters, river levels become ever more critical for maintaining adequate depths and stable water quality for wintering fish. Perhaps the best strategy for providing adequate wintering habitat for Illinois River fish would be a combination of habitat rehabilitation and the maintenance of stable winter river levels by using navigation dams.
Raibley, P.T., T.M. O'Hara, K.S. Irons, K.D. Blodgett, and R.E. Sparks. 1997. Largemouth bass size distributions under varying annual hydrological regimes in the Illinois River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126:850-856.
Abstract--Little is known about the population dynamics of largemouth bassMicropterus salmoides in temperate large river-flooplain ecosystems. However, the hydrological regimes in these systems are often similar to those of large reservoirs where fluctuating water levels during spawning have been shown to affect largemouth bass population dynamics. Most backwater lakes of the Illinois River have soft, silty substrates. These substrates are not conducive to nest building, so spawning centrarchids may use annual spring floods to access inundated terrestrial vegetation and previously dry, compacted substrates on the floodplain. We used electrofishing catch data from La Grange Reach of the Illinois River (1990-1995) to assess how spring and early-summer river levels influence the cohort strength of largemouth bass. Strong cohorts were produced during years with high spring floods (1990, 1993, and 1995) when largemouth bass could access the floodplain for spawning and nursery habitat. In both 1990 and 1993, fish had access to the floodplain for extended periods during spring and summer, which resulted in exceptionally strong cohorts. These cohorts probably benefitted from abundant forage and cover on the floodplain, which bolstered survival rates. Weak cohorts were produced in 1992 and 1994 when river levels were low and fluctuating during spawning and in 1991 when river levels declined dramatically during spawning. Length distributions of other centrarchids mirrored those of largemouth bass, indicating that river levels probably affected other nest-building species in La Granage Reach.
Sparks, R.E. 1997. Need for ecosystem management of large rivers and their floodplains. BioScience 45(3):168-182. Reprinted by U.S. Geological Survey, Environmantal Management Technical Center, Onalaska, WI, April 1997. LTRMP 97-R004. 15 pp.
Stoeckel, J.A., L. Camlin, K.D. Blodgett, and R.E. Sparks. 1996. Establishment of Daphnia lumholtzi (an exotic zooplankter) in the Illinois River. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 11(3):377-379.
Abstract--Daphnia lumholtzi, and exotic zooplankter, recently has become established in the Illinois River. This species was first detected at Illinois River Mile (IRM) 121.1 near Havana, Illinois in June of 1995, and exhibited a peak abundance of 22.5/L in August. Population trends and densities in the Illinois River resemble those reported in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, suggestingD. lumholtzi is adaptable to lotic as well as lentic systems. Individuals were found at sampling sites as far upriver as IRM 195.9.
Raibley, P.T., K.D. Blodgett, and R.E. Sparks. 1995. Evidence of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reproduction in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi rivers. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 10(1):65-74.
Abstract--Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an exotic species which was imported into the United States in 1963 to control aquatic vegetation. Individuals escaped from ponds and subsequently spread into streams in the Mississippi River basin. We have been collecting grass carp in the Illinois River since 1990, and some of our associates have also collected grass carp in other portions of the upper Mississippi River system. The presence of juveniles (some less than 20 mm long) and adults (some diploid) in our collections leads us to believe that grass carp are reproducing in the Illinois River, and their larvae are finding suitable nursery areas in backwaters. Naturalized, reproducing grass carp populations probably exist as far north as 209 km into the Illinois River. Collections of juveniles by other researchers indicate reproduction and recruitment may also be occurring in upper Mississippi River Reaches 25, 26 and the Open River Reach below Lock and Dam 27.
Sparks, R.E. 1995. Maintaining and restoring the ecological integrity of the Mississippi River: Importance of floodplains and floodpulses. Transactions of the 60th North American Wildlife and natural Resources Conference. P. 90-97