Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

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BIRDS OF ILLINOIS

 

Class Aves

Order Anseriformes

Family Anatidae
    Sub-family Dendrocygninae
(Dendrocygna bicolor - Fulvous Whistling Duck)
(Dendrocygna autumnalis ­ Black-bellied Whistling Duck)
    Sub-family Anserinae
Anser albifrons - Greater White-fronted Goose
Chen caerulescens - Snow Goose (Blue and White phases)
Chen rossii - Ross's Goose
Branta hutchinsii-Cackling Goose
Branta canadensis - Canada Goose *
Branta bernicla - Brant
Cygnus olor - Mute Swan I *
Cygnus buccinator - Trumpeter Swan X *
Cygnus columbianus - Tundra Swan
    Sub-family Anatinae
Aix sponsa - Wood Duck *
Anas strepera - Gadwall *
Anas penelope - Eurasian Wigeon
Anas americana - American Wigeon
Anas rubripes - American Black Duck *
Anas platyrhynchos - Mallard *
(Anas fulvigula – Mottled Duck)
Anas discors - Blue-winged Teal *
Anas cyanoptera - Cinnamon Teal
Anas clypeata - Northern Shoveler *
(Anas bahamensis - White-cheeked Pintail)
Anas acuta - Northern Pintail *
(Anas querquedula - Garganey)
Anas crecca - Green-winged Teal *
Aythya valisineria - Canvasback
Aythya americana - Redhead *
Aythya collaris - Ring-necked Duck
(Aythya fuligula - Tufted Duck)
Aythya marila - Greater Scaup
Aythya affinis - Lesser Scaup *
Somateria spectabilis - King Eider
(Somateria mollissima - Common Eider)
Histrionicus histrionicus - Harlequin Duck
Melanitta perspicillata - Surf Scoter
Melanitta fusca - White-winged Scoter
Melanitta nigra - Black Scoter
Clangula hyemalis - Long-tailed Duck (Oldsquaw)
Bucephala albeola - Bufflehead
Bucephala clangula - Common Goldeneye
Bucephala islandica - Barrow's Goldeneye
Lophodytes cucullatus - Hooded Merganser *
Mergus merganser - Common Merganser
Mergus serrator - Red-breasted Merganser
Oxyura jamaicensis - Rudy Duck *


Order Galliformes

Family Phasianidae
    Sub-family Phasianinae
Perdix perdix - Gray Partridge I *
Phasianus colchicus - Ring-necked Pheasant I *
    Sub-family Tetraoninae
Bonasa umbellus - Ruffed Grouse X, but reintroduced *
Tympanuchus phasianellus - Sharp-tailed Grouse X *
Tympanuchus cupido - Greater Prairie Chicken SE *
    Sub-family Meleagridinae
Meleagris gallopavo - Wild Turkey X, but reintroduced *
Family Odontophoridae
Colinus virginianus - Northern Bobwhite *


Order Gaviiformes

Family Gaviidae
Gavia stellata - Red-throated Loon
Gavia arcticus - Arctic Loon
(Gavia pacifica - Pacific Loon)
Gavia immer - Common Loon
(Gavia adamsii - Yellow-billed Loon)


Order Podicipediformes

Family Podicipedidae
Podilymbus podiceps - Pied-billed Grebe *
Podiceps auritus - Horned Grebe
Podiceps grisegena - Red-necked Grebe
Podiceps nigricollis - Eared Grebe *
Aechmorphorus occidentalis - Western Grebe
(Aechmorphorus clarkii - Clark's Grebe)


Order Pelecaniformes

Family Sulidae
(Morus bassanus - Northern Gannet)
Family Pelecanidae
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos - American White Pelican
(Pelecanus occidentalis - Brown Pelican) FE
Family Phalacrocoracidae
(Phalacrocorax brasilianus - Neotropic (Olivaceous) Cormorant)
Phalacrocorax auritus - Double-crested Cormorant *
Family Anhingidae
(Anhinga anhinga - Anhinga)
Family Fregatidae
(Fregata magnificens - Magnificant Frigatebird)


Order Ciconiiformes

Family Ardeidae
Botaurus lentiginosus - American Bittern SE *
Ixobrychus exilis - Least Bittern ST *
Ardea herodias - Great Blue Heron *
Ardea alba - Great Egret *
Egretta thula - Snowy Egret SE *
Egretta caerulea - Little Blue Heron SE *
Egretta tricolor - Tricolored Heron
(Egretta rufescens - Reddish Egret)
Bubulcus ibis - Cattle Egret *
Butorides virescens - Green Heron *
Nycticorax nycticorax - Black-crowned Night-heron SE *
Nytanassa violaceus - Yellow-crowned Night-heron SE *
Family Threskiornithidae
    Sub-family Threskiornithinae
(Eudocimus albus - White Ibis)
Plegadis falcinellus - Glossy Ibis
Plegadis chihi - White-faced Ibis
    Sub-family Plataleinae
(Platalea ajaja - Roseate Spoonbill X?)
Family Ciconiidae
(Mycteria americana - Wood Stork) FE
Family Cathartidae
Coragyps altratus - Black Vulture *
Cathartes aura - Turkey Vulture *


Order Falconiformes

Family Accipitridae
    Sub-family Pandioninae
Pandion haliaetus - Osprey SE *
    Sub-family Accipitrinae
Elanoides forficatus - Swallow-tailed Kite
(Elanus leucurus - White-tailed (Black-shouldered) Kite)
Ictina mississippiensis - Mississippi Kite SE *
Haliaeetus leucocephalus - Bald Eagle ST FT *
Circus cyaneus - Northern Harrier SE *
Accipiter striatus - Sharp-shinned Hawk *
Accipiter cooperii - Cooper's Hawk *
Accipiter gentilis - Northern Goshawk
Buteo lineatus - Red-shouldered Hawk *
Buteo platypterus - Broad-winged Hawk *
Buteo swainsoni - Swainson's Hawk SE *
Buteo jamaicensis - Red-tailed Hawk *
Buteo regalis - Ferruginous Hawk
Buteo lagopus - Rough-legged Hawk
Aquila chrysaetos - Golden Eagle
Family Falconidae
    Sub-family Falconinae
Falco sparverius - American Kestrel *
Falco columbarius - Merlin
Falco rusticolus - Gyrfalcon
Falco peregrinus - Peregrine Falcon ST X, but reintroduced *
Falco mexicanus - Prairie Falcon

Order Gruiformes

Family Rallidae
Coturnicops noveboracensis - Yellow Rail
Laterallus jamaicensis - Black Rail SE *
Rallus elegans - King Rail SE *
Rallus limicola - Virginia Rail WL *
Porzana carolina - Sora WL *
Porphyrio martinica - Purple Gallinule *
Gallinula chloropus - Common Moorhen ST *
Fulica americana - American Coot *
Family Gruidae
Grus canadensis - Sandhill Crane ST *
(Grus americana - Whooping Crane) FE


Order Charadriiformes

Family Charadriidae
Pluvialis squatarola - Black-bellied Plover
Pluvialis dominica - American Golden-Plover
(Charadrius alexandrinus - Snowy Plover)
Charadrius semipalmatus - Semipalmated Plover
Charadrius melodus - Piping Plover X SE FE *
Charadrius vociferus - Killdeer *
Family Recurvirostridae
Himantopus mexicanus - Black-necked Stilt *
Recurvirostra americana - American Avocet
Family Scolopacidae
Tringa melanoleuca - Greater Yellowlegs
Tringa flavipes - Lesser Yellowlegs
Tringa solitaria - Solitary Sandpiper
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus - Willet
Actitis macularius - Spotted Sandpiper *
Bartramia longicauda - Upland Sandpiper SE *
Numenius borealis - Eskimo Curlew FE
Numenius phaeopus - Whimbrel
Numenius americanus - Long-billed Curlew
Limosa haemmastica - Hudsonian godwit
Limosa fedoa - Marbled Godwit
Arenaria interpres - Ruddy Turnstone
Calidris canutus - Red Knot
Calidris alba - Sanderling
Calidris pusilla - Semipalmated Sandpiper
Calidris mauri - Western Sandpiper
Calidris minutilla - Least Sandpiper
Calidris fuscicollis - White-rumped Sandpiper
Calidris bairdi - Baird's Sandpiper
Calidris melanotos - Pectoral Sandpiper
(Calidris acuminata - Sharp-tailed Sandpiper)
Calidris maritima - Purple Sandpiper
Calidris alpina - Dunlin
(Calidris ferruginea - Curlew Sandpiper)
Calidris himantopus - Stilt Sandpiper
Tryngites subruficollis - Buff-breasted Sandpiper
Philomachus pugnax - Ruff
Limnodromus griseus - Short-billed Dowitcher
Limnodromus scolopaceus - Long-billed Dowitcher
Gallinago delicata - Wilson's Snipe WL *
Scolopax minor - American Woodcock *
Phalaropus tricolor - Wilson's Phalarope SE *
Phalaropus lobatus - Red-necked (Northern) Phalarope *
Phalaropus fulicarius - Red Phalarope
Family Laridae
    Sub-family Stercorariinae
Stercorarius pomarinus - Pomarine Jaeger
Stercorarius parasiticus - Parasitic Jaeger
Stercorarius longicaudis - Long-tailed Jaeger
    Sub-family Larinae
Larus atricilla - Laughing Gull
Larus pipixcan - Franklin's Gull
Larus minutus - Little Gull
(Larus ridibundus - (Common) Black-headed Gull)
Larus philadelphia - Bonaparte's Gull
(Larus canus - Mew Gull)
Larus delawarensis - Ring-billed Gull *
Larus californica - California Gull
Larus argentatus - Herring Gull *
Larus thayeri - Thayer's Gull
Larus glaucoides - Iceland Gull
Larus fuscus - Lesser Black-backed Gull
(Larus schistisagus - Slaty-backed Gull)
(Larus occidentalis - Western Gull)
(Larus glaucescens - Glaucous-winged Gull)
Larus hyperboreus - Glaucous Gull
Larus marinus - Great Black-backed Gull
Xema sabini - Sabine's Gull
Rissa tridactyla - Black-legged Kittiwake
(Rhodostethis rosea - Ross's Gull)
(Pagophila eburnea - Ivory Gull)
    Sub-family Sterninae
Sterna nilotica - Gull-billed Tern)
Sterna caspia - Caspian Tern
(Sterna maxima - Royal Tern)
Sterna sandvicensis - Sandwich Tern)
Sterna hirundo - Common Tern SE *
(Stern paradisaea - Arctic Tern)
Sterna forsteri - Forster's Tern SE *
Sterna antillarum - Least Tern SE FE *
(Sterna fuscata - Sooty Tern)
(Phaetusa simplex - Large-billed Tern)
Chlidonias niger - Black Tern SE *
    Sub-family Rynchopinae
(Rynchops niger - Black Skimmer)
Family Alcidae
(Alle alle - Dovkie)
(Synthliboramphus antiquus - Ancient Murrelet)


Order Columbiformes

Family Columbidae
Columba livia - Rock Pigeon *
Patagioenas fasciata - Band-tailed Pigeon)
(Streptopelia decaocto - Eurasin Collared-dove) I
(Zenaida asiatica - White-winged Dove)
Zenaida macroura - Mourning Dove *
Ectopistes migratoriu - Passenger Pigeon (†) *
(Columbina inca - Inca dove)
(Columbina passerina - Common Ground-dove)


Order Psittaciformes

Family Psittacidae
    Sub-family Arinae
Myiopsitta monachus - Monk Parakeet I *
Conuropsis carolinensis - Carolina Parakeet (†) *


Order Cuculiformes

Family Cuculidae
    Sub-family Coccyzinae
Coccyzus erythropthalmus - Black-billed Cuckoo *
Coccyzus americanus - Yellow-billed Cuckoo *
    Sub-family Crotophaginae
(Crotophaga sulcirofris - Groove-billed Ani)


Order Strigiformes

Family Tytonidae
Tyto alba - (Common) Barn-owl SE *
Family Strigidae
Megascops asio - Eastern Screech-owl *
Bubo virginianus - Great Horned Owl *
Bubo scandiaca - Snowy Owl
Surina ulula - Northern Hawk-owl
Athene cunicularia - Burrowing Owl
Strix varia - Barred Owl *
Asio otus - Long-eared Owl *
Asio flammeus - Short-eared Owl SE *
Aegolius funereus - Boreal Owl
Aegolius acadicus - Northern Saw-whet Owl *


Order Caprimulgiformes

Family Caprimulgidae
    Sub-family Chordeilinae
Chordeiles minor - Common Nighthawk *
    Sub-family Caprimulginae
Caprimulgus carolinensis - Chuck-will's-widow *
Caprimulgus vociferus - Whip-poor-will *


Order Apodiformes

Family Apodidae
    Sub-family Chaeturinae
Chaetura pelagica - Chimney Swift *
Family Trochilidae
    Sub-family Trochilinae
Archilochus colubris - Ruby-throated Hummingbird *
(Selasphorus platycercus - Broad-tailed Hummingbird)
(Selasphorus rufus - Rufous Hummingbird)
(Selasphorus sasin - Allen’s Hummingbird)


Order Coraciiformes

Family Alcedinidae
    Sub-family Cerylinae
Ceryle alcyon - Belted Kingfisher *


Order Piciformes

Family Picidae
    Sub-family Picinae
Melanerpes erythrocephalus - Red-headed Woodpecker *
Melanerpes carolinus - Red-bellied Woodpecker *
(Sphyrapicus thyroides - Williamson's Sapsucker)
Sphyrapicus varius - Yellow-bellied Sapsucker *
Picoides pubescens - Downy Woodpecker *
Picoides villosus - Hairy Woodpecker *
(Picoides borealis – Red-cockaded Woodpecker)
Picoides arcticus - Black-backed Woodpecker
Colaptes auratus - Northern Flicker *
Dryocopus pileatus - Pileated Woodpecker *
Campephilus principalis - Ivory-billed Woodpecker FE X


Order Passeriformes

Family Tyrannidae
    Sub-family Fluvicolinae
Contopus cooperi - Olive-sided Flycatcher
Contopus virens - Eastern Wood-pewee *
Empidonax flaviventris - Yellow-bellied Flycatcher
Empidonax virescens - Acadian Flycatcher *
Empidonax alnorum - Alder Flycatcher *
Empidonax traillii - Willow Flycatcher *
Empidonax minimus - Least Flycatcher *
Sayornis phoebe - Eastern Phoebe *
(Sayornis saya - Say's Phoebe)
(Pyrocephalus rubinus - Vermilion Flycatcher)
Sub-family Tyranninae
(Myiarchus cinerascens - Ash-throated Flycatcher)
Myiarchus crinitus - Great Crested Flycatcher *
Tyrannus verticalis - Western Kingbird *
Tyrannus tyrannus - Eastern Kingbird *
Tyrannus forficata - Scissor-tailed Flycatcher *
(Tyrannus savanna – Fork-tailed Flycatcher)
Family Lanidae
Lanius ludovicianus - Loggerhead Shrike ST *
Lanius excubitor - Northern Shrike
Family Vireonidae
Vireo griseus - White-eyed Vireo *
Vireo bellii - Bell's Vireo WL *
Vireo flavifrons - Yellow-throated Vireo *
Vireo solitarius - Blue-headed (Solitary) Vireo *
Vireo gilvus - Warbling Vireo *
Vireo philadelphicus - Philadelphia Vireo
Vireo olivaceus - Red-eyed Vireo *
Family Corvidae
(Cyanocita stellari - Stellar's Jay)
Cyanocita cristata - Blue Jay *
(Aphelocoma californica - Western Scrub-jay)
(Aphelocoma sp. Scrub Jay)
(Nucifraga columbiana - Clark’s Nutcracker)
(Pica hudsonia - Black-billed Magpie)
Corvus brachyrhynchos - American Crow *
Corvus ossifragus - Fish Crow *
Corvus corax - Common Raven X *
Family Alaudidae
Eremophila alpestris - Horned Lark *
Family Hirundinidae
    Sub-family Hirundininae
Progne subis - Purple Martin *
Tachycineta bicolor - Tree Swallow *
(Tachycineta thalassina - Violet-green Swallow)
Stelgidopteryx serripennis - Northern Rough-winged Swallow *
Riparia riparia - Bank Swallow *
Petrochelidon pyrrhonota - Cliff Swallow *
Hirundo rustica - Barn Swallow *
Family Paridae
Poecile carolinensis- Carolina Chickadee *
Poecile atricapillus- Black-capped Chickadee *
Poecile hudsonica- Boreal Chickadee
Baeolophus bicolor - Tufted Titmouse *
Family Sittidae
    Sub-family Sittinae
Sitta canadensis - Red-breasted Nuthatch *
Sitta carolinensis - White-breasted Nuthatch *
(Sitta pusilla - Brown-headed Nuthatch)
Family Certhiidae
Certhia americana - Brown Creeper *
Family Troglodytidae
Salpinctes obsoletus - Rock Wren
Thryothorus ludovicianus - Carolina Wren *
Thryomanes bewickii - Bewick's Wren SE *
Troglodytes aedon - House Wren *
Troglodytes troglodytes - Winter Wren
Cistothorus platensis - Sedge Wren *
Cistothorus palustris - Marsh Wren *
Family Regulidae
Regulus satrapa - Golden-crowned Kinglet
Regulus calendula - Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Family Sylviidae
    Sub-family Polioptilinae
Polioptila caerulea - Blue-gray Gnatcatcher *
Family Turdidae
(Oenanthe oenanthe - Northern Wheatear)
Sialia sialis - Eastern Bluebird *
(Sialia currucoides - Mountain Bluebird)
Myadestes townsendi - Townsend's Solitaire
Catharus fuscescens - Veery *
Catharus minimus - Gray-cheeked Thrush
Catharus ustulatus - Swainson's Thrush
Catharus guttatus - Hermit Thrush
Hylocichla mustelina - Wood Thrush *
Turdus migratorius - American Robin *
Ixoreus naevius - Varied Thrush
Family Mimidae
Dumetella carolinensis - Gray Catbird *
(Oreoscoptes montanus - Sage Thrasher)
Mimus polyglottos - Northern Mockingbird *
Toxostoma rufum - Brown Thrasher *
(Toxostoma curvirostre - Curve-billed Thrasher)
Family Sturnidae
Sturnus vulgaris - European Starling I *
Family Motacillidae
Anthus rubescens - American (Water) Pipit
Anthus spragueii - Sprague's Pipit
Family Bombycillidae
Bombycilla garrulus - Bohemian Waxwing
Bombycilla cedrorum - Cedar Waxwing *
Family Parulidae
Vermivora pinus - Blue-winged Warbler *
Vermivora chrysoptera - Golden-winged Warbler WL *
Vermivora peregrina - Tennessee Warbler
Vermivora celata - Orange-crowned Warbler
Vermivora ruficapilla - Nashville Warbler *
Parula americana - Northern Parula *
Dendroica petechia - Yellow Warbler *
Dendroica pensylvanica - Chestnut-sided Warbler *
Dendroica magnolia - Magnolia Warbler
Dendroica tigrina - Cape May Warbler
Dendroica caerulescens - Black-throated Blue Warbler
Dendroica coronata - Yellow-rumped Warbler
(Dendroica nigrescens - Black-throated Gray Warbler)
Dendroica virens - Black-throated Green Warbler *
(Dendroica townsendi - Townsend's Warbler)
(Dendroica occidentalis ­ Hermit Warbler)
Dendroica fusca - Blackburnian Warbler
Dendroica dominica - Yellow-throated Warbler *
Dendroica pinus - Pine Warbler *
Dendroica kirtlandii - Kirtland's Warbler FE
Dendroica discolor - Prairie Warbler *
Dendroica palmarum - Palm Warbler
Dendroica castanea - Bay-breasted Warbler
Dendroica striata - Blackpoll Warbler
Dendroica cerulea - Cerulean Warbler ST *
Mniotilta varia- Black-and-white Warbler *
Setophaga ruticilla - American Redstart *
Protonotaria citrea - Prothonotary Warbler *
Helmitheros vermivorum - Worm-eating Warbler *
Limnothlypis swainsonii - Swainson's Warbler SE *
Seiurus aurocapilla - Ovenbird *
Seiurus noveboracensis - Northern Waterthrush
Seiurus motacilla - Louisiana Waterthrush *
Oporornis formosus - Kentucky Warbler *
Oporornis agilis - Connecticut Warbler
Oporornis philadelphia - Mourning Warbler *
(Oporornis tolmiei - MacGillivray’s Warbler)
Geothlypis trichas - Common Yellowthroat *
Wilsonia citrina - Hooded Warbler *
Wilsonia pusilla - Wilson's Warbler
Wilsonia canadensis - Canada Warbler *
Icteria virens - Yellow-breasted Chat *
Family Thraupidae
(Piranga flava - Hepatic Tanager)
Piranga rubra - Summer Tanager *
Piranga olivacea - Scarlet Tanager *
Piranga ludoviciana - Western Tanager
Family Emberizidae
(Pipilo chlorurus - Green-tailed Towhee)
(Pipilo maculatus - Spotted Towhee)
Pipilo erythrophthalmus - Eastern Towhee *
(Aimophila cassinii - Cassin's Sparrow)
Aimophila aestivalis - Bachman's Sparrow *
Spizella arborea - American Tree Sparrow
Spizella passerina - Chipping Sparrow *
Spizella pallida - Clay-colored Sparrow *
(Spizella breweri - Brewer's Sparrow)
Spizella pusilla - Field Sparrow *
Pooecetes gramineus - Vesper Sparrow *
Chondestes grammacus - Lark Sparrow *
Calamospiza melanocorys - Lark Bunting
(Amphispiza bilineata - Black-throated Sparrow)
Passerculus sandwichensis - Savannah Sparrow *
Ammodramus savannarum - Grasshopper Sparrow *
Ammodramus henslowii - Henslow's Sparrow ST *
Ammodramus leconteii - Le Conte's Sparrow *
Ammodramus nelsoni - Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow
Passerella iliaca - Fox Sparrow
Melospiza melodia - Song Sparrow *
Melospiza lincolnii - Lincoln's Sparrow
Melospiza georgiana - Swamp Sparrow *
Zonotrichia albicollis - White-throated Sparrow *
Zonotrichia querula - Harris's Sparrow
Zonotrichia leucophrys - White-crowned Sparrow
(Zonotrichia atricapilla - Golden-crowned Sparrow)
Junco hyemalis - Dark-eyed Junco
Calcarius lapponicus - Lapland Longspur
Calcarius pictus - Smith's Longspur
Calcarius ornatus - Chestnut-collared Longspur
Plectrophenax nivalis - Snow Bunting
Family Cardinalidae
Cardinalis cardinalis - Northern Cardinal *
Pheucticus ludovicianus - Rose-breasted Grosbeak *
Pheucticus melanocephalus - Black-headed Grosbeak
Passerina caerulea - Blue Grosbeak *
(Passerina amoena - Lazuli Bunting)
Passerina cyanea - Indigo Bunting *
(Passerina amoena - Painted Bunting) *
Spiza americana - Dickcissel *
Family Icteridae
Dolichonyx oryzivorus - Bobolink WL *
Agelaius phoeniceus - Red-winged Blackbird *
Sturnella magna - Eastern Meadowlark *
Sturnella neglecta - Western Meadowlark *
Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus - Yellow-headed Blackbird SE *
Euphagus carolinus - Rusty Blackbird
Euphagus cyanocephalus - Brewer's Blackbird *
Quiscalus quiscula - Common Grackle *
(Quiscalus mexicanus - Great-tailed Grackle)
Molothrus ater - Brown-headed Cowbird *
Icterus spurius - Orchard Oriole *
Icterus galbula - Baltimore Oriole *
(Icterus parisorum - Scott’s Oriole)
Family Fringillidae
    Sub-family Carduelinae
(Leucoosticte tephrocotis - Gray-crowned Rosy-finch)
Pinicola enucleator - Pine Grosbeak
Carpodacus purpureus - Purple Finch
Carpodacus mexicanus - House Finch I *
Loxia curvirostra - Red Crossbill *
Loxia leucoptera - White-winged Crossbill
Carduelis flammea - Common Redpoll
Carduelis hornemanni - Hoary Redpoll
Carduelis pinus - Pine Siskin *
Carduelis tristis - American Goldfinch *
Coccothraustes vespertinus - Evening Grosbeak
Family Passeridae
Passer montanus - Eurasian Tree Sparrow I *
Passer domesticus - House Sparrow I *


(†) = Extinct
FE = Federally Endangered
FT = Federally Threatened
X = Extirpated from Illinois
SE = Illinois State Endangered
ST = Illinois State Threatened
WL = Illinois Watch List
( ) = Very Rare Vagrant
* = Confirmed Breeding in Illinois
I = Introduced

 


Taxonomic order and nomenclature from:
American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pp.

_________________________. 2000. Forty-second Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 117(3): 847-858.

Banks, R.C., C. Cicero, J.L. Dunn, A.W. Kratter, P.C. Rasmussen, J.V. Remsen, Jr., J.D. Rising and D.F. Stotz. 2002. Forty-third Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 119(3): 897-906.

_________________________ 2003. Forty-fourth Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 120(3): 923-931.
_________________________ 2004. Forty-fifth Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 121(3): 985-995.


Illinois occurrences reported from:
Bohlen, H.D. 1989. The Birds of Illinois. Indiana University Press. 221 pp.

Goetz, R.E. 1989. Second Report of the Illinois Ornithological Records Committee. Illinois Birds and Birding. 5:3-10.

Goetz, R.E. 1990. Third Report of the Illinois Ornithological Records Committee. Illinois Birds and Birding. 6:9-14.

Goetz, R.E. and J.C. Robinson. 1988. First Report of the Illinois Ornithological Records Committ3ee. Illinois Birds and Birding. 4:57-63.

Goetz, R.E. and D.F. Stotz. 1999. Fifth Report of the Illinois Ornithological Records Committee. Meadowlark, A Journal of Illinois Birds. 8:53-62.

Illinois Breeding Bird Atlas. 1998.

http://wwx.inhs.illinois.edu/animals_plants/birds/breeding

Johnson, D.B., P.R. Clyne and M.F. Deaton. 1998. Fourth Report of the Illinois Ornithological Records Committee. Meadowlark, A Journal of Illinois Birds. 7:50-65.

Johnson, D. B. and D. F. Stotz. 2005. The Eleventh Report of the Illinois Ornithological Records Committee. Meadowlark, A Journal of Illinois Birds.

Stotz, D.F. 2001. Seventh Report of the Illinois Ornithological Records committee. Meadowlark, A Journal of Illinois Birds. 10:52-58.

Stotz, D.F. and D.B. Johnson. 2002. Eighth Report of the Illinois Ornithological Records Committee. Meadowlark, A Journal of Illinois Birds. 11(2): 63-67.

Stotz, D.F. and D.B. Johnson. 2003. Ninth Report of the Illinois Ornithological Records Committee. Meadowlark, A Journal of Illinois Birds. 12(2):55-61.

Williamson, C. 2002. State's First Confirmed Nesting White-throated Sparrow. Meadowlark, A Journal of Illinois Birds. 11(2):63-67.


Illinois status from:
Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. 1999. Checklist of Endangered and Threatened Animals and Plants of Illinois. Springfield, Illinois. 20 pp.




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