Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Yellow-crowned night-heron
Nyctanassa violacea

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Ciconiiformes
  • Family: Ardeidae
  • Genus: Nyctanassa
  • Species: Nyctanassa violacea
  • Authority: Linnaeus

Comments on taxonomy:
Tribe: Nycticoracini *21*. Subspecies:6 with only N.v. violaceus occurring in the united states. N.v. bancrofti reaches along the western coast of Mexico and into the West Indies *07*. Other names: fish crane, indian hen, quabird, quawk, quok, squawk, crab-eater, indian pullet, grosbec *04,07,10*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

The yellow-crowned night-heron is a fairly common migrant and summer resident in southern Ill.; An uncommon migrant and summer resident in central Ill.; An occasional migrant and summer resident in northern Ill. It is usually not detected in Illinois until April and peak abundance is seen in may or early June. (Mid April-late August) *01, 03*. This species seldom nests in Illinois *03*. Recent breeding accounts:1981/82, 1 nest near Lake Calumet, probably nesting along the Embarras River (Lawrence Co.), The cache river (Pulaski & Alexander Cos.), And near black bottoms along the Ohio River. 1982/83, Nest building observed in Bloomingdale (DuPage Co.), 2 Nests with young in Wood Dale *22*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
This species needs careful monitoring because of its small population numbers (< 1000) and the fact it nests in threatened habitat *03*. N. violacea is classified as a federal migratory species and is protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 *24* and the Illinois Wildlife Code of 1971 *25*.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types:

Cover typeStructural stageCanopy closureSeason
Oak-gum-cypress All Unknown Fall
Oak-gum-cypress All Unknown Spring/summer
Elm-ash-cottonwood All Unknown Fall
Elm-ash-cottonwood All Unknown Spring/summer

Associated tree species: No records.

National wetland inventory classifications:

SystemSubsystemClassSubclassWater regime modifiersWater chemistry
Lacustrine Littoral Emergent vegetation Nonperistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Lacustrine Littoral Flat Mud Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Lacustrine   Unknown Unknown Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Unknown Unknown Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Emergent vegetation Persistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Emergent vegetation Nonpersistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Flat Mud Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Forest Deciduous Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Forest Evergreen Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Scrub/shrub Deciduous Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Scrub/shrub Evergreen Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine Lower perennial Emergent vegetation Persistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine Lower perennial Emergent vegetation Nonpersistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine Lower pernnial Flat Mud Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine Unknown perennial Unknown Unknown Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified

Comments on species-habitat associations:
The habitat associations of the yellow-crowned night-heron has not been completely defined especially for Illinois. Two habitat types seem necessary for this species 1) wetlands for foraging and 2) bottomland forest for nesting. Palmer (1962) states that nests are placed on large limbs of trees or shrubs or sometimes on ground, suggesting a large range of forest class sizes may be utilized *03, 07*. Mengal (1960) states this species is rarely far from mature timber *09*. Foraging has been observed about pools, streams edges, sloughs, swamps, lagoons and even plowed fields *03,16*.

Important plant and animal association: The most important food item of the yellow-crowned night-heron are crayfishes *06*.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Oak-gumm cypress All Spring
Oak-gum-cypress All Summer
Elm-ash-cottonwood All Spring
Elm-ash-cottonwood All Summer
Water Special habitat Spring
Water Special habitat Summer
Wetland Special habitat Spring
Wetland Special habitat Summer
Wet floodplain forest All Spring
Wet floodplain forest All Summer
Marsh All Spring
Marsh All Summer
Swamp All Spring
Swamp All Summer
Shrub swamp All Spring
Shrub swamp All Summer
Low-gradient creek All Spring
Low-gradient creek All Summer
Low-gradient small river All Spring
Low-gradient small river All Summer
Low-gradient medium river All Spring
Low-gradient medium river All Summer
Medium-gradient large river All Spring
Medium-gradient large river All Summer

Species-habitat interrelations: Habitat interrelations have not been defined for the yellow-crowned night-heron. High value habitats listed here are gleaned from the literature and concern actual nesting sites and foraging sites observed. General habitat associations stated are those inferred by the literature *00*. Descriptive studies of this species are needed.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Wetland All All Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, arthropods
Water column- arthropods
Water surface- arthropods
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water column- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, fish
Water bottom-aquatic bed, fish
Water column- fish
Water surface- fish
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, amphibians
Water bottom-aquatic bed, amphibians
Water column- amphibians
Water surface- amphibians
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, reptiles
Water bottom-aquatic bed, reptiles
Water column- reptiles
Water surface- reptiles
Wetland All All Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Terrestrial surface- invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface- amphibians
Terrestrial surface- reptiles
Terrestrial surface- birds
Terrestrial surface- small mammals (< 1 kg)

Comments on feed-guilding:
The yellow-crowned night-heron possesses foraging characteristics similar to all wading birds but it is unique among ardeids in that it specializes on crustacean prey *06,11,15*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Floodplain forest All Spring/summer Shrub strata, canopy of broad-leaved deciduous shrubs Shrub strata, canopy of needle-leaved deciduous shrubs Shrub strata, canopy of broad-leaved evergreen shrubs Shrub strata, canopy of needle-leaved evergreen shrubs Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved evergreen trees Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved evergreen trees
Wetland All Spring/summer Shrub strata, canopy of broad-leaved deciduous shrubs Shrub strata, canopy of needle-leaved deciduous shrubs Shrub strata, canopy of broad-leaved evergreen shrubs Shrub strata, canopy of needle-leaved evergreen shrubs Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved evergreen trees Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved evergreen trees

Comments on breed-guilding:
Nest site may vary from ground to over 50 ft. in a variety of trees and shrubs *07*.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is CARNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Mollusca Unknown
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Unknown
Crustaceans Unknown
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Juvenile
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Adult
Insecta Unknown
Osteichthyes (bony fishes) Unknown
Amphibians Unknown
Caudata (salamanders,newts,mudpuppies,sirens,hellbenders) Unknown
Salientia (frogs, toads) Juvenile
Salientia (frogs, toads) Adult
Reptiles Unknown
Testudines (turtles) Unknown
Sauria (lizards, skinks, iguana) Unknown
Serpentes (snakes) Unknown
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrat) Unknown
Ardeidae (herons, bitterns) Juvenile
Passeridae (house sparrows) Unknown
Important:
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Juvenile
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Adult
Salientia (frogs, toads) Juvenile
Salientia (frogs, toads) Adult
Juvenile:
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Juvenile
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Adult
Adult:
Mollusca Unknown
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Unknown
Crustaceans Unknown
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Juvenile
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Adult
Insecta Unknown
Osteichthyes (bony fishes) Unknown
Amphibians Unknown
Caudata (salamanders,newts,mudpuppies,sirens,hellbenders)  
Salientia (frogs, toads) Juvenile
Salientia (frogs, toads) Adult
Reptiles Unknown
Testudines (turtles) Unknown
Sauria (lizards, skinks, iguana) Unknown
Serpentes (snakes) Unknown
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrat) Unknown
Ardeidae (herons, bitterns) Juvenile
Passeridae (house sparrows) Unknown

Comments on food habits: 
General: The yellow-crowned night-heron eats many foods common to all wading birds but is unique among the ardeids in that it specializes on crustaceans, crayfishes being its principal food item *06*.
Juvenile: From the literature it seems parents feed young mostly crayfishes. After fledging immature birds adopt adult diet. See care *6640*.
Adult: See comments on general food habits.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: oxbow
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries
  • Human associations: see comments

Limiting:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Human associations: see comments

Feeding juvenile:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters

Resting juvenile:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments

Feeding adult:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters

Resting adult:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments

Breeding adult:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Environmental associations and factors have not been defined for the yellow-crowned night-heron. Gross environmental information is taken from literature on wading birds in general *15,23*. The existence of unpolluted and undisturbed wetland situations seems critical *03, 23*. Mengel (1965) states this species was more frequently observed in forested situations and is never far from mature timber *09*.
Feeding juvenile: The existence of unpolluted and undisturbed wetland situations *15, 23*
Resting juvenile: Largely unknown. Young do rest in and about nest after fledging *03, 13,18*. Most studies observe this species nesting in bottomland situations though in a variety of trees and shrubs *03,05,07,09,13*.
Feeding adult: See card *7435*.
Resting adult: Harford (1951) observed yellow-crowned night-herons "dozing" in trees during the daylight hours *13*. The black-crowned night-heron is known to utilize roost trees *04*.
Breeding adult: Largely unknown. Foraging areas are critical and may be a major deciding factor in selection of nest site *05,08*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *01*.

Physical description: Stocky uniformly gray heron. Sexes outwardly similar with males averaging larger. Length:22-28 inches; wingspan 40-44 inches; weight to 23 oz. Adults: distinct black and white face, crown often tinged with yellow. 2 white occipital plumes. Head larger than black-crowned night-heron, also more stout, thick bill, slender neck, and more erect posture. Immatures: heavily streaked below like black-crowned but not as brown, darker more slate color. Has shorter, thicker bill, longer legs and smaller light spots on back *04,07,20*.

Reproduction: The yellow-crowned night-heron is probably seasonally monogamous but little is known about its breeding behavior *07*. This species has been described as solitary *09,10*, to highly colonial *04,19*, but usually is seen in small conspecific groups, on the fringes of larger heronries or nesting singly *03,04,07*. It is not known if males arrive on breeding grounds before females and courtship is not described. Harford (1951) reported a "stick" ceremony performed by a pair on their nest site in the early stages of nest construction. Displays, billing and preening apparently assists in maintenance of pair bond *07*. For Illinois nest construction has been observed by 28 april and also completed by 10 may *03*. Construction was noted on 4 April (N.C.), 1 May (N.J.), 14 Apr. (N.Y.) 13 May (Mo.) And early March (Fla.) *07,08*. The nest could be placed <1 foot to >50 feet in a variety of trees or shrubs depending on the habitat and abundance of food in the neighborhood *07,08*. The nest is usually saddled on a branch or in a fork of a large limb well out from the trunk, but sometimes adjacent to it *03,13,18*. The nest is usually a well built structure of heavy twigs with a finer lining *07*. Old nests may be reused. It is believed the male chooses the nest site *07*. Both sexes participate in nest construction *07*. Egg laying in Illinois begins in late April. Eggs were reported in nests from 6 May-4 June but the season is expected to extend much later *03*. Egg laying occurs March-May (Fla.), Into June (La.), April-May (Tx.), And farther north from April-May *04*. Eggs are pale blueish-green, usually 3-4 (5-6) and rarely 8 per clutch, 51.3 x 37.4 mm *07,08,10, 13,18,19*. Both sexes incubate, 24-25 days *03,05,10*. Nest relief may be accompanied by a display as in other heron spp. *07*. The yellow-crowned night-heron will lay replacement clutch if destroyed *07,18*. Sprunt & Chamberlain (1970) report this species to lay 2 clutches/year *10*. No information is available on hatching time or interval between hatchings. Young are covered with gray down (darker than black-crowned) with coarse hairlike feathers on their backs and skin and soft parts are yellow *13*. Rate of development may be similar to the black-crowned night-heron *03*. At 16 days, pin feathers are errupting and a month later the young are actively crawling on limbs near the nest *13*. Mengal (1965) states that young birds remain in the nest for approximatley 3 1/2 weeks *09*. The suggested nesting period from building or adopting of nest to fledging young is approximately 2 months *08*. Young attain full adult plumage at 2 1/2 years *07*. Age at first reproduction is unknown.

Behavior: The yellow-crowned night-heron is migratory (though less migratory than the black-crowned) and is usually not detected in Illinois until April with few being seen after August *03*. The species has a spotty distribution the length of Illinois and apparently rarely nests in the state *03*. It is suggested that the male chooses a territory which is used for hostile and sexual displays, copulation, and nesting. Courtship behavior has not been described but probably involves some ritualized display. Once formed the pair bond is maintained through billing, preening and display *07*. No measurements are available for territories or home range. Weeks (1976) reports a pairs feeding area was 1.5 mi. from their nest site *05*. The yellow-crowned night-heron is shier, quieter and less gregarious than its congener the black-crowned night-heron *07*. It is secretive and more frequently observed in forested situations *09*. The species is described as rather solitary and prefers to nest apart from other birds or may nest on outer fringes of a more populous rookery *09,10*. Weeks (1976) reported nests within 200 yds. of each other but usually more scattered *05*. The yellow-crowned night-heron is less nocturnal than the black- crowned and can be seen foraging throughout the day *15,16*. It has also been observed roosting during the day *13*. The feeding method employed is sit & wait or walking slowly. This species is an inactive forager and possibly possesses the smallest behavioral repertoire of the north american herons *11,15*. The yellow- crowned night-heron is unique among Ardeids in that it specializes on crustacean prey *06*.

Limiting factors: The yellow-crowned night-heron has a small and sporadic population in Illinois (< 1000 birds). Only 2 observations of nesting were reported in 1982 *03,22*. The species is secretive and other nestings are assumed possibly along the Embarras River, Cache River and near black bottoms along the Ohio River *22*. Draining and polluting of wetlands, logging, and human encroachment are threatening essential habitats for this and other heron spp. *03*. The availability of foraging sites may be the most critical limiting factor of wading birds *15,23*. This species is described as intolerant of human disturbance and is easily driven from its nest *09,10,19*. Enemies are assumed to be similar to those of other herons; racoons, crows, raptors.

Population parameters: No data is available. Species accounts tend to support the view of a population increase at least in the north. The yellow-crowned night-heron has been extending its range northward *07*. In Illinois the increase in frequency of sitings may only represent a recent interest by man and also better and more observers *03*. Since 1930 on the atlantic and gulf coastal plains, no great changes in numbers has been apparent but there is a suggested decline due to swamp destruction *14*. In Illinois, the yellow-crowned night-heron needs careful monitoring because of small population numbers (< 1000) and the fact it nests in threatened habitat *03*. Intensive studies on the life history of the yellow-crowned night- heron are desperately needed.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Maintaining natural areas and nature preserves
  • Maintaining unique or special habitat features (wetlands, snags, caves, cliffs, talises, etc.
  • Preserving sensitive species habitat
  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Seasonal restriction of human use of habitats
  • Controlling pollution in aquatic habitats
  • Maintaining streams
  • Maintaining streams
  • Developing/maintaining lakes and ponds
  • Developing/maintaining wetlands
  • Creating/maintaining wetlands from non-wetlands
  • Protecting existing wetlands
  • Restoration of wetlands (return flooded or drained areas to previous wetland conditions)
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Forest protection
  • Maintaining forests
  • Restricting human disturbance during migration, breeding, and nesting

Adverse:

  • Recreational development
  • Channelization
  • Channelization
  • Navigational improvements such as channelization and locks and dams
  • Dredging
  • Dredging
  • Draining ponds/lakes
  • Draining wetlands
  • Applying pesticides
  • Cutting and deforestation
  • Clearcutting forests

Comments on management practices:
The existence of unpolluted and undisturbed wetlands (sloughs, marshes, swamps, etc.) Are critical to the survival of wading birds *15,23*. Nesting areas should also be protected. The yellow-crowned night-heron needs careful monitoring because the Illinois population is small (<1000) and it nests in threatened habitat *03*.

 


REFERENCES

0. MALMBORG, PATTI L. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV. 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, ILL. 61820 (217)333-6846.

1. BOHLEN, H.D. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILL. STATE MUS., POP. SCI. SER. VOL IX. PG. 20.

2. BOWLES, M. 1981. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED VERTEBRATE ANIMALS AND VASCULAR PLANTS OF ILLINOIS. ILL. DEPT. OF CONS. P. 189.

3. GRABER, J.W., R.R. GRABER, & E.L. KRIK. 1978. ILLINOIS BIRDS: CICONIIFORMES. BIOLOGICAL NOTES NO. 109. INHS. URBANA. PP. 61-64.

4. TERRES, J.K. 1980. THE AUDUBON SOCIETY ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. ALFRED A. KNOPF. N.Y. PP. 501-502.

5. WEEKS, H.P., 1976. BREEDING OF THE YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERON IN INDIANA. INDIANA AUDUBON QUARTERLY 54(3):83-86.

6. RIEGNER, M.F. 1982. PREY HANDLING IN YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERONS. AUK 99:380-381.

7. PALMER, R.S. 1962. HANDBOOK OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. VOL. 1. YALE UNIV. PRESS. NEW HAVEN. PP. 484-490.

8. BENT, A.C. 1926. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN MARSH BIRDS. U.S. NATL. MUS. NO. 135. 490 PP. PP. 213-219.

9. MENGEL, R.M. 1965. THE BIRDS OF KENTUCKY. ORNITHOL. MONOGR. NO. 3. PP. 167-169.

10. SPRUNT, A. & E.B. CHAMBERLAIN. 1970. SOUTH CAROLINA BIRD LIFE. UNIV. OF SOUTH CAROLINA PRESS, COLUMBIA. PP. 90-95.

11. KUSHLAND, J.A. 1976. FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF NORTH AMERICAN HERONS. AUK 93:86-94.

12. WYMAN, M.A. 1941. YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERON IN WISCONSIN. AUK 58: 569-570.

13. HARFORD, H.M. 1951. NEST OF THE YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERON, NYCTANASSA VIOLACEA, IN KANSAS CITY, MO. AUK 68:235-236.

14. OGDEN, J.C. 1978. RECENT POPULATION TRENDS OF COLONIAL WADING BIRDS ON THE ATLANTIC AND GULF COASTAL PLAINS. PP. 137-154 IN WADING BIRDS (EDS.) A. SPRUNT, J. OGDEN, & S. WINCKLER. RES. REPT. NO. 7. NATIONAL AUDUBON SOC. N.Y.

15. KUSHLAN, J.A. 1978. FEEDING ECOLOGY OF WADING BIRDS. PP. 249-297 IN WADING BIRDS (EDS.) A SPRUNT, J. OGDEN, S. WINCKLER. RES. REPT. NO. 7. NATL. AUDUBON SOC. N.Y.

16. BURLEIGH, T.D. 1958. GEORGIA BIRDS. UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA PRESS. NORMAN. P. 113-145.

17. STONE, W. 1937. BIRD STUDIES AT OLD CAPE MAY. VOL 1. THE DELAWARE VALLEY ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB. PHILADELPHIA. PP. 155-157.

18. PRICE, H.F. 1946. FOOE OF A YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERON. AUK 63:P. 441.

19. HOLT, E.G. 1933. A RECORD COLONY OF YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERONS. AUK 50:350-351.

20. PETERSON, R.T. 1980. A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS. HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. P. 104.

21. 34TH SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS UNIONS CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. SUPPLEMENT TO AUK VOL. 99(3).

22. KLEEN, V. FIELD NOTES:BREEDING SEASON. ILLINOIS AUDUBON BULLETIN. ILLINOIS AUDUBON SOCIETY. WAYNE IL. 1981/82 P. 25 1982/83 P. 27.

23. ANDERSON, J.M. 1978. PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF WADING BIRDS. PP. 99-103 IN WADING BIRDS (EDS.) A. SPRUNT, J. OGDEN, & S. WINCKLER. RES. REPT. NO. 7. NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY. N.Y.

24. U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE. 1983. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS. TITLE 50. WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES. CHAPTER 1. PP. 11-18. 50CFR10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPECIAL PUBL. FEDERAL REGISTER. GENERAL SER- VICES ADMIN. OCTOBER 1.

25. ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH. 61. WILDLIFE. ART. II. PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES, 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN. 120 P.

 


 

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