Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Northern shoveler
Anas clypeata

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Anseriformes
  • Family: Anatidae
  • Genus: Anas
  • Species: Anas clypeata
  • Authority: Linnaeus

Comments on taxonomy:
Now Anas clypeata (Linnaeus); until 1973, regarded by AOU as Spatulata clypeata *05*; a.k.a. shoveller, spoonbill, spoonbilled duck *06*; spoon-bill teal, broady, blue-winged shoveler, red-breasted shoveler, swaddle-bill, butter duck, cow-frog *07*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Common migrant; rare summer resident in north and central; uncommon winter resident in south; occasional winter resident in north and central *01*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
The northern shoveler is protected by the Illinois wildlife code of 1971 *03* and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 *04*.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types: No records.

Associated tree species: No records.

 

National wetland inventory classifications:

SystemSubsystemClassSubclassWater regime modifiersWater chemistry
Lacustrine Littoral Aquatic bed   Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Lacustrine Littoral Emergent vegetation   Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Lacustrine Littoral Flat   Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine       Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine       Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine Lower perennial     Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine Lower perennial     Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Prairie
Wetland
Marsh
Swamp
Bog
Lakes and ponds
Special habitat All
Agricultural field Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All

Species-habitat interrelations: Nests in fresh marshes, ponds, slough *02*; grassland ponds and potholes, shallow prairie marshes particularly those with abundant plant and animal life floating on the surface, highest densities on shallow rather than deep marshes with maximum depth of 5 feet and with milfoil and pondweed present, open rather than wooded shores, shallow eutrophic waters with a mud bottom, coastal shorelines that offer freshwater pools or shallow shores for feeding; islands with gravel or polished rock shorelines, attracted to nesting gulls or terns, most of nests located near water, may tend toward upland nesting, may be found further from water than nests of other species *06*; marshes, shallow sloughs, bogs, roadside pools, swampy barnyards, thick grass, moist ground *07*; shallow pools, meres, marshes with good cover and dry nesting areas nearby *12*; mixed prairie association, parklands, shortgrass and tallgrass prairie, salt lakes, prefers grass cover, also uses hayfields, meadows and, rarely, marshes of bulrush *09*. non-breeding habitat: winters on freshwater meadows, avoids saltwater habitats; large rivers, coastal bays *06*; freshwater marshes, swamps, flooded areas, infrequently on saltwater except when disturbed *12*; coastal marshes *09*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

Comments on feed-guilding:
Seives from water with long closely spaced lamellae of the bill *06*; feeds at surface, rarely by diving or tipping up; feed in small groups in the wake of each other; widely dispersed groups *06* wades and dabbles in the mud, strains mud through the bill *07*; usually in groups up to 20; draws water through front of bill and pumps it out through the sides, also takes insects and larger items directly from the water *12*; paddles with head half submerged *10*; feeds in shallow, muddy water *07*; feeds in shallow mud-bottomed marshes; bill shape restricts foraging capabilities and serves as a dispersal device *13*; feeds on sewage lagoons *09*; may be a group of birds rotating on the surface in a tight cluster to stir up surface food *09*; eats surface plankton in deepwaters; skims surface of bottom soils in shallow waters *09*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Prairie
Wetland
Marsh
Swamp
Bog
Lakes and ponds
Special habitat Spring/summer Terrestrial surface
Terrestrial surface, marshy areas with hydrophytes but not hydric soils
Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation
Agricultural field Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) Spring/summer Terrestrial surface
Terrestrial surface, marshy areas with hydrophytes but not hydric soils
Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation<

Comments on breed-guilding:
Seldom chooses weedy patches and areas in or adjacent to woody vegetation, nests 75-200 feet from water *09*; nests found in grasses usually under 12 inches and not more than 24 inches high; in Montana 50%+ in short grass, 23% hidden in tallgrass, 13% in thistles, rest under other herbaceous or shrub cover; in Utah - 65% in saltgrass, rest under bulrushes and other herbaceous weeds *06*.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is OMNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Protozoans Not applicable
Chlorophyta (green algae) Leaves/needles
Tracheophyta (vascular plants) Tubers, bole/stem, branches/twigs, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Spermopsida (seed plants) Fruit/seeds
Coniferae (conifers, gymnosperms) Fruit/seeds
Taxodiaceae (redwood family) Fruit/seeds
Taxodium (bald cypress) Fruit/seeds
Angiospermae (flowering plants) Tubers, bole/stem, branches/twigs, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Dicotyledoneae (dicots) Tubers, bole/stem, branches/twigs, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Salicaceae (willow, poplar) Fruit/seeds
Haloragaceae (water milfoil) Bole/stem, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Bole/stem, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Hydrocharitaceae (tape grass,water weed) Tubers, bole/stem, branches/twigs, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Araceae (water lettuce) Tubers, bole/stem, branches/twigs, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Liliaceae (lily, onion) Bole/stem, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass) Bole/stem, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Annelida (segmented worms) Adult
Annelida: oligochaetas (earth worms) Adult
Annelida: hirudinea (leeches) Adult
Mollusca Adult
Mollusca: bivalvia (bivalves) Adult
Mollusca: gastropoda (snails) Adult
Crustaceans Adult
Ostracods (eucypris) Adult
Copepods (cyclops, calanus) Adult
Insecta Adult
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Larva, pupa
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Tricoptera (caddisflies) Larva
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Larva
Osteichthyes (bony fishes) Juvenile, adult
Amphibians Juvenile
Salientia (frogs, toads) Juvenile
Adult:
Protozoans Not applicable
Chlorophyta (green algae) Leaves/needles
Tracheophyta (vascular plants) Tubers, bole/stem, branches/twigs, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Spermopsida (seed plants) Fruit/seeds
Coniferae (conifers, gymnosperms) Fruit/seeds
Taxodiaceae (redwood family) Fruit/seeds
Taxodium (bald cypress) Fruit/seeds
Angiospermae (flowering plants) Tubers, bole/stem, branches/twigs, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Dicotyledoneae (dicots) Tubers, bole/stem, branches/twigs, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Salicaceae (willow, poplar) Fruit/seeds
Haloragaceae (water milfoil) Bole/stem, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Bole/stem, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Hydrocharitaceae (tape grass,water weed) Tubers, bole/stem, branches/twigs, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Araceae (water lettuce) Tubers, bole/stem, branches/twigs, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Liliaceae (lily, onion) Bole/stem, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass) Bole/stem, leaves/needles, fruit/seeds
Annelida (segmented worms) Adult
Annelida: oligochaetas (earth worms) Adult
Annelida: hirudinea (leeches) Adult
Mollusca Adult
Mollusca: bivalvia (bivalves) Adult
Mollusca: gastropoda (snails) Adult
Crustaceans Adult
Ostracods (eucypris) Adult
Copepods (cyclops, calanus) Adult
Insecta Adult
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Larva, pupa
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Tricoptera (caddisflies) Larva
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Larva
Osteichthyes (bony fishes) Juvenile, adult
Amphibians Juvenile
Salientia (frogs, toads) Juvenile

Comments on food habits: 
General: Plant food=66%, animal food=34% *10*; 25% of diet is macroscopic animal life *10*; foods include aquatic beetles, water boatmen, caddisfly larvae, naiads of damselflies and dragonflies, small molluscs, duckweed, vegetative parts of pondweeds, wigeon grass, seeds of bulrush and pondweeds *06*; ostracods, copepods, other crustaceans, seeds of spike rush, seeds of 3-square, muskgrass, small fish *06*; saltgrass *06*; leeches, earthworms, snails, aquatic plants, grasses, grass seeds, bulbs, tadpoles *07*; seeds of sedges, algae, water lillies, macerated plant debris, water bugs, dragonfly larvae *10*; seeds of nutgrass, millet, smartweeds, bald cypress, water willow, buttonbush, panic grass, fingernail clams, midge larvae *09*; phytoplankton, diatoms, rooted and floating aquatics, zooplankton, herbaceous fruit, fish fry *08,09,11*.
Juvenile: Led to nearest water after hatching and are taught to feed by female on insects and soft animal and vegetable food *11*.
Adult: Filter feeder in shallow water swimming just above the bottom or filtering water; eats grasses, sedges, pondweeds, waterlilies, algae *08,09*. See general & important food habits [FH].


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Air temperature:see comments
  • Turbidity: clear water
  • Turbidity: clear water, tolerates periodic cloudiness
  • Turbidity: turbid water
  • Substrate: mud or silt
  • Trophogenic zones: well-lighted upper layer of standing water (epilimnion)
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Aquatic habitat zone: pelagic- needs open water
  • Water depth preference: < 1 ft.
  • Water depth preference: 1-5 ft.
  • Aquatic habitats: mud flats
  • Aquatic habitats: rocky offshore islands
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated offshore islands
  • Aquatic habitats: bogs
  • Aquatic habitats: silt bottom streams
  • Aquatic habitats: detritus bottom streams
  • Aquatic habitats: pool areas
  • Aquatic habitats: stream weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: lake weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Pastures: unknown
  • Grassland: unknown
  • Meadows: unknown
  • Old fields: unknown
  • Shrubs: unknown
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Ground cover- herbaceous canopy ave. ht: see comments
  • Human associations: farm ponds
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries
  • Unknown

Egg:

  • Unknown

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Prefer nesting in grasses less than 12 inches and not greater than 24 inches *06*.
Feeding juvenile: Young feed in shallow water in open marshy areas, females keep them close to shore or near areas of emergent vegetation *08*.
Resting juvenile: Young rest in shoreline vegetation *08*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *01*.

Physical description: Adult male breeding plumage-head=metallic green, darker-almost black-sheen on crown, nape, face, and neck; mantle= darker brown with white-edged feathers; scapulars=variable, shorter ones are white, longer ones are blue, white, and black, wings=sepia with pale blue median and lesser coverts, and green speculum bordered with white in front and behind; lower neck and breast=white; flanks and abdomen=dark cinnamon brown to chestnut; rump and upper tail coverts=black with greenish gloss, sides of rump=white; tail=brown and white with dark center; bill=large and spatulate; black; legs and feet=orange-red *12*; adult female-mottled in shades of brown or buff; best identified by large, spatulate; grayish-brown bill and blue shoulder patch *12*; immatures similar to female *12*; length=500 mm *12*; wing-male=225-245 mm, female=220-225 mm; culmen-male=62-64 mm, female=60-62 mm; weight-female=589 g average, male=634 g average *04*; bill usually carried tilted downward *12*.

Reproduction: Breeding season-early April on to June *12*; span of nest initiation=41-73 days with 60 being the average *09*; incubation period=23-25 days *09*; brood size=7 *06*; reproductive periods/year= 1, but some birds renest when initial nests are destroyed *06,09*; sexual maturity=1 year *06*; breeding behavior-pair bonds lacking between late June and November or December; no evidence of polyandry; not determined if birds remate with mates of previous year *06*; do not establish pair bonds until winter season *09*; pair forming begins on winter grounds in mid-December and continues until birds depart for breeding grounds; bond strong-persists until hatching or even some time afterward *06*; displays include dabbling, head- dipping, tipping up; female incites, male swims ahead and turns back of head to female; unpaired males may attempt to display to paired females but never approach closely *06*; copulation preceded by mutual head-pumping with bill at low angle; male may utter soft notes; after copulation male utters a single loud nasal note followed by a series of wooden sounds while remaining in a rigid posture beside the female with body erect and bill pointed down *06*; clutch size= 10.7 average for early nests, 10.1 average for all nests *06*; size=52 x 37 mm *12*; olive green or buffy eggs *07*.

Behavior: Strong mate defense; said to be most territorial of all North American dabbling ducks, may not be true in wild with low densities; ponds less than 1.25 acres used by one pair only; bonds or 1.25-2 acres used by 2 pairs only *06*; high level of territorial hostility *13*; clearly defined territories form after 1-2 weeks on the breeding ground *09*; home ranges average 49.7 acres (15-90) *06*; rests when sun is high on mud or sand at water's edge *08*; migraton-migrates from southern prairie provinces of Canada to the Chesapeake Bay; corridor=southeast from Canada and North Dakota prairies to great lakes; from there, across the Alleghanies to the Chesapeake Bay *14*; fall (bay)-August 25 to December 15, peak= September 20-November 15; spring (bay)-March 1-May 15, peak=March 15-April 30 *14*; swift erratic flight *10*; early migrant *09*; rests on shallow lakes and ponds with extensive mudflats *08*; diurnal *08*; most active early and late in day *08*; strong dispersal tendencies *06*; on breeding grounds-return to larger sloughs in small flocks that break up as paired birds disperse to nearby ponds *09*; nesting and nest sites-breeds from western and interior Alaska south to California and east to the great lakes, some breeding along the middle atlantic coast *06*; nest=hollow in ground *10*; nests in dry grass or under bushes, constructed of grass and leaves, lined with feathers and down *07*; nest success=42-90% *06*; female spends up to 27 days looking for nest site before laying, spends 6-8 days in nest construction, initially spends 1-2 hours on nest, later spends entire morning, male does not accompany female to nest but she spends returns to mate when away from the nest site for foraging or resting, later-seldom leaves the nest *06*; female incubates alone *10*; some drakes desert female on first day of incubation, others stay 2+ weeks, some stay until hatching, 42% of females returned next year, considering mortality this may represent 100% return rate *09*; water near nest site can be clean, clear, muddy, flowing, or stagnant *08*; often breed on refuges *09*; females with broods prefer waters with an abundance of pondweeds as well as waterweeds, in crowded conditions females may kill young from other broods, brood mergers occur *06*; female leaves nest within 24 hours of hatching, frequently male remains with female and young a short time after hatching though they probably do not help rear the brood *06*; female leads brood from nest to ponds used earlier as waiting sites; seldom remains longer than 7-10 days; ducklings grow faster in Alaska since longer days permit them to consume more food *09*; fledging period=6-7 weeks *06*; winters to Central America *02*; only 10% found in central and atlantic flyways.

Limiting factors: Does not stand cold well *07*.

Population parameters: Average united states population=58600 (1966- 1969) *06*; hunting: canada=29600; alaska=3700; united states=34600; total kill=3,793,000 *06*; average breeding population (1979)= 2,089,000 *14*; juvenile mortality-5/6 of those hatched reach 'flapper' stage; 58% all-age mortality annually *06*; adult mortality is 37-44% *14*; mortality-immatures=71%, adults=61% *09*; 1.91 immatures/adult bagged, actual adjusted ratio=0.74 immature to adult *09*; sex ratio=1.96 males/female bagged for adult birds; 1.10 males/ females bagged for immature birds; spring population composed equally of immatures and adult birds contain 59% drakes *09*. predators= skunks, crows, weasels *06*; ground squirrels, magpies, gulls *09*; mammals destroy twice as many nests as do birds *09*. diseases and parasites: general reference *21,22*; bacterial: botulism *23,24*; chlamydiosis *25*; cholera *26,27,28*; pasturella *29*; tuberculosis *30*; fungal: aspergillosis *31*; digenea *35*; trematodes *33,34*; protozoan: coccidia *32,36,37*; sarcocystis *32,38*; blood parasites *39*; ectoparasites *40*; flies *18*; lice *32*; nutritional disease *35*; miscellaneous *19*.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Controlling pollution
  • Maintaining streams
  • Developing/maintaining lakes and ponds
  • Developing/maintaining wetlands
  • Developing/maintaining mudflats
  • Regulating harvest of animal being described
  • Regulating hunting
  • Restricting human disturbance during migration, breeding, and nesting

Adverse:

  • Applying pesticides
  • Applying herbicides
  • Applying insecticides

Existing:

  • Regulating harvest of animal being described
  • Regulating hunting

Comments on management practices: Maintain undisturbed resting sites for migrating birds; addition of resting ponds *08*.


REFERENCES

0. FOSTER, C. AND L. GRIBKO. 101 CHEATHAM HALL, BLACKSBURG, VA. 24061.

1. BOHLEN, H.D. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILL. STATE MUSEUM POP. SCI. SERIES. VOL. IX. 156 PP.

2. PETERSON, R.T. 1980. A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS A COMPLETELY NEW GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF EASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA. 4TH ED. HOUGHTON-MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON, MASS.

3. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS CH. 61. WILDLIFE ART. II. PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN. 120 PP.

4. U.S. FISH & WILDLIFE SERVICE. 1983. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS TITLE 50. WILDLIFE & FISHERIES CHAPTER 1 PP. 11-18. 50 CFR 10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPECIAL PUBL. FED. REGISTER GENERAL SERVICES ADMIN. OCT. 1.

5. JOHNSGARD, P.A. 1979. A GUIDE TO NORTH AMERICAN WATERFOWL. INDIANA UNIV. PRESS, BLOOMINGTON.

6. JOHNSGARD, P.A. 1975. WATERFOWL OF NORTH AMERICA. INDIANA UNIV. PRESS, BLOOMINGTON.

7. UNKNOWN. 1936. BIRDS OF AMERICA. PART III. PEARSON T.G., ED. DOUBLEDAY BOOK CO., INC. GARDEN CITY, NY. 8. PALMER, R.S. 1976. HANDBOOK OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. VOL. II. YALE UNIV. PRESS, NEW HAVEN, CN.

9. BELLROSE, F.C. 1978. DUCKS, GEESE AND SWANS OF NORTH AMERICA. 2ND ED. STACKPOLE BOOKS, HARRISBURG, PENN.

10. KORTRIGHT, F.H. 1967. THE DUCKS, GEESE AND SWANS OF NORTH AMERICA. STACKPOLE BOOKS, HARRISBURG, PENN.

11. BENT, A.C. 1951. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WILDFOWL. VOL. I. SMITHSONIAN INST. WASHINGTON, D.C. 224 PP. SOURCE FORM: PAPER.

12. SOOTHILL, E., & P. WHITEHEAD. 1978. WILDFOWL OF THE WORLD. BLANDFORD PRESS.

13. JOHNSGARD, P.A. 1978. DUCKS, GEESE AND SWANS OF THE WORLD. UNIV. NEBRASKA PRESS, LINCOLN.

14. MEANLEY, B. 1982. WATERFOWL OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY COUNTRY. TIDEWATER PUBL., CENTREVILLE, MD.

15. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERVATION. 1984. 1984 WATERFOWL HUNTING INFORMATION. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERV., SPRINGFIELD, IL. PAMPHLET.

16. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1973. THIRTY-SECOND SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. SUPPLEMENT TO THE AUK 90:411-419.

17. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1983. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 6TH ED. ALLEN PRESS INC., LAWRENCE, KN. 877 PP.

18. WOBESER, G., ET AL. 1981. MYIASIS BY WAHLFAHRTEA APACA (COQ.). A CAUSE OF MORTALITY OF NEWLY HATCHED WILD DUCKLINGS. CAN. FIELD NAT. 95(4):471-73.

19. MACNEIL, A.C., & T. BARNARD. 1978. NECROPSY RESULTS IN FREE-FLYING & CAPTIVE ANATIDAE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CAN. VET. J. 19:17-21.

20. WEHR, E.E. 1971. NEMATODES PP. 185-233. INFECTIOUS & PARASITIC DISEASES OF WILD BIRDS. DAVIS, J.W., R.C. ANDERSON, L. KARSTAD, AND D.O. TRAINER, EDS. THE IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY, AMES, IOWA.

21. HUMPHREYS, P. 1978. DUCKS, GEESE, SWANS (ANSERIFORMES) PAGES 183-209 ZOO AND WILD ANIMAL MEDICINE. FOWLER, M.E., ED. W.B. SAUNDERS CO., PHILADELPHIA.

22. WOBESER, G.A. 1981. DISEASES OF WILD WATERFOWL.

23. FORRESTER, D.J., ET AL. 1980. AN EPIZOOTIC OF AVIAN BOTULISM IN A PHOSPHATE MINE SETTLING POND IN NORTHERN FLORIDA. J. WILDL. DIS. 16(3):323-327.

24. ROSEN, M.N. 1971. BOTULISM PAGES 100-117. INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES OF WILD BIRDS. DAVIS, J.W., R.C. ANDERSON. L. KARSTAD AND D.O. TRAINER, EDS. THE IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY, AMES, IOWA.

25. BURKHART, R.L. AND L.A. PAGE. 1971. CHLAMYDIASIS (ORNITHOSIS- PSITTACOSIS) PP. 118-140. INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES OF WILD BIRDS. DAVIS, J.W., R.C. ANDERSON, L. KARSTAD & D.O. TRAINER, EDS. THE IOWA STATE UNIV., AMES, IOWA.

26. HAZLEWOOD, R.M., ET AL. 1978. THE 1975-1976 AVIAN CHLOERA OUTBREAKS IN HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIF. J. WILDL. DIS. 14:229-232.

27. ODDO, A.F., ET AL. 1978. THE JANUARY 1977 AVIAN CHOLERA EPORNITIC IN NORTHWEST CALIFORNIA. J. WILDL. DIS. 14:317-321.

28. ROSEN, M.N. 1971. AVIAN CHOLERA. PP. 59-74. INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES OF WILD BIRDS. DAVIS, J.W., R.C. ANDERSON, L. DARSTAD, & D.O. TRAINER, EDS. THE IOWA STATE UNIV., AMES, IOWA.

29. FADDOUL, G.P., G.W. FELLOWS, AND J. BARID. 1966. A SURVEY IN THE INCIDENCE OF SALMONELLA IN WILD BIRDS. AVIAN DIS. 10:89-94.

30. GALE, N.B. 1971. TUBERCULOSIS PP. 89-94. INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES OF WILD BIRDS. DAVIS, J.W., R.C. ANDERSON, L. KARSTAD AND D.O. TRAINER, EDS., IOWA STATE UNIV., AMES, IOWA.

31. O'MEARA, D.C. & J.F. WITTER. 1971. ASPERGILLASIS. PAGES 163-169. INFECTIOUS & PRASITIC DISEASES OF WILD BIRDS. DAVIS, J.W., R.C. ANDERSON, L. KARSTAD, AND D.O. TRAINER, EDS. IOWA STATE UNIV., AMES, IOWA.

32. BRODERSON, C. ET AL. 1977. PARASITES OF WATERFOWL FROM SOUTHWEST TEXAS:II. THE SHOVELER, ANAS CLYPEALA. J. WILDL. DIS. 13:435-439.

33. VANDEVUSSE, F.J. 1979. HOST-PARASITE RELATIONS OF DENDRITOBIL HARZIA PULVERULENTA (TREMATODA: SCHISTOSOMATIDAE) AND ANATIDS. J. PARASITOL. 65(6):894-897.

34. VANDEVUSSE, F.J. 1980. A REVIEW OF THE GENUS. DENDRITO-BILHARZIA (SKRJABIN & ZAKHAROW 1920) (TREMATODA SCHISTOSOMATIDAE). J. PARASITOL. 66(5):814-822.

35. SCOTT, M.E. ET AL. 1980. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY OF TYPHLOCODUM CUCUMERIUM (DIGENEA) IN WILD ANATIDS OF QUEBEC, CANADA. J. WILDL. DIS. 16(1):71-75.

36. HALLIWELL, W.H., ET AL. 1973. NUTRITIONAL DISEASES IN BIRDS OF PREY. J. ZOO. ANIM. MED. 4:18.

37. NATION, P.N. & G. WOBESER. 1977. RENAL COCCIDIASES IN WILD DUCKS IN SASKATCHEWAN. J. WILDL. DIS. 14:124-131.

38. WOBESER, G. & R.J. CAWTHORN. 1982. GANULOMATOUS MYOSITIS IN ASSOCIATION WITH SARCACYSTES SP. INFECTION IN WILD DUCKS. AVIAN DIS. 26(2):412-418.

39. WILLIAMS, N.A. & G.F. BENNETT. 1980. AVIAN HAEMOPROTEIDAE 13. THE HAEMOPROTIDS OF THE DUCKS AND GEESE (ANATIDAE). CAN. J. ZOOL 58(1): 88-93.

40. PETERS, H.S. 1936. A LIST OF EXTERNAL PARASITES FORM BIRDS OF THE EASTERN PARTS OF THE U.S. BIRD BANDING 7:9-27.

 


 

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Illinois Natural History Survey

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