Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

King rail
Rallus elegans

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Gruiformes
  • Family: Rallidae
  • Genus: Rallus
  • Species: Rallus elegans
  • Authority: Audubon

Comments on taxonomy:
Subspecies R.e. elegans occurs in Illinois *09*. Confusion over relation to clapper rail occurred at one time but as of now recognized as separate species *08,13*. Other names: freshwater marsh hen, great red-breasted rail, marsh hen *02*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Mid April-late October; uncommon migrant and locally uncommon summmer resident; very rare winter resident *01*. Breeding records include 1983, *17,18*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
The king rail is not considered a game bird in Illinois *15*. See management practices. this species is protected under the Illinois Wildlife Code, 1971 *11*, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 1918 *12*.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake

Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types: No records.

Associated tree species: No records.

National wetland inventory classifications:

SystemSubsystemClassSubclassWater regime modifiersWater chemistry
Lacustrine Littoral Emergent vegetation Persistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Lacustrine Littoral Emergent vegetation Narrowleaved persistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Emergent vegetation Persistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Emergent vegetation Narrowleaved persistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Scrub/shrub Deciduous Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine Lower perennial Emergent vegetation Persistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine Lower perennial Emergent vegetation Narrowleaved persistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine Lower perennial Flat Mud Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified

Comments on species-habitat associations:
Though primarily a bird of freshwater marshes the king rail probably occurs in a wider variety of habitats than any other rail *04,09*, this species may be found in marshes, shrub swamps, ponds, stream side, roadside ditches, mudflats or upland fields *04*. As long as the terrain supports a reasonable amount of vegetation and is frequently wet the king rail has the ability to adapt *09*.

Important plant and animal association: Muskrats, rice.
Muskrats create an optimal habitat for king rails by opening up marshes and producing networks of pathways providing rails with feeding and drinking place *04*. Rice fields afford a cultivated 'marsh type' to rails in Ark. and La. and the king rail is considered a 'typical bird' of rice country *04*.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Wetland Special habitat Spring/summer
Nonforested wetland Special habitat Spring/summer
Wetland Special habitat Fall
Nonforested wetland Special habitat Fall
Streams and canals Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Spring/summer
Lakes Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Spring/summer
Bays and estuaries Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Spring/summer
Streams and canals Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Fall
Lakes Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Fall
Bays and estuaries Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Fall
Marsh Special habitat Spring/summer
Marsh Special habitat Fall
Shrub swamp Special habitat Spring/summer
Shrub swamp Special habitat Fall
Sedge meadow Special habitat Spring/summer
Sedge meadow Special habitat Fall
Lakes and ponds Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Spring/summer
Lakes and ponds Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Fall
Lake Michigan Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Spring/summer
Lake Michigan Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Fall
Streams Special habitat Spring/summer
Streams Special habitat Fall
Abandoned cropland Special habitat Fall/winter

Species-habitat interrelations: Type (wetland) function (feeding/breeding) value (high) season (spring, summer, fall). The king rail can adapt to a wide variety of habitat types as long as the terrain supports a reasonable amount of vegetation and is frequently wet *09*. Optimal habitat appears to be freshwater marshes with emergent vegetation, i.e., sedge, bulrush, or cattail *04*. Muskrats enhance marshes by opening up a network of pathways, providing potential feeding and drinking places *see 04*. Vegetation growing in tussocks or stool type substrate is attractive to nesting rails *04*. King rails feed primarily in shallow water of 2-3 inches, also, mudflats and cultivated fields *04,09*. Rice fields are an attractive cultivated 'marsh type' that attracts rails in Ark. and La. *04*. Roadside ditches with strips of emergent vegetation also appear attractive *04*. Also marshy edges of lakes, ponds, sluggish streams and sloughs *16*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Wetland Special habitat Fall Terrestrial subsurface-roots, tubers, rhizomes of herbaceous plants
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Terrestrial surface-leaves, twigs, fruits, seeds of evergreen trees
Terrestrial surface- amphibians
Water bottom-aquatic bed, arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, fish
Water bottom-aquatic bed, amphibians
Water bottom-aquatic bed, reptiles
Wetland Special habitat Spring/summer Terrestrial subsurface-roots, tubers, rhizomes of herbaceous plants
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Terrestrial surface-leaves, twigs, fruits, seeds of evergreen trees
Terrestrial surface- amphibians
Water bottom-aquatic bed, arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, fish
Water bottom-aquatic bed, amphibians
Water bottom-aquatic bed, reptiles

Comments on feed-guilding:
King rails usually feed in shallow water approx. 2-3 inches deep. They also feed on aquatic bed or off plants themselves or mudflats *02,03*. King rails are somewhat omnivorous but feed largely on aquatic animal matter *10*. Fall and winter may visit cultivated fields in search of grain *08*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Wetland Special habitat Spring/summer River/lake/marsh, vascular plants- floating, nonwoody, rooted
River/lake/marsh, vascular plants- emergent, woody
Terrestrial surface
Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation

Comments on breed-guilding:
King rails usually place nest above water in shallow part of marsh in tussock or clump of aquatic vegetation, i.e. grasses, sedges or rushes of uniform height *02,03,04*. Also, occassionally nest on dry land site of cultivated field or grassy embankments *04*. Copulation takes place near nest site *04*.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is OMNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Polygonaceae (buckwheat, rhubarb) Fruit/seeds
Asteraceae (asters) Fruit/seeds
Araceae (water lettuce) Tubers
Araceae (water lettuce) Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): oats Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): rice Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): wheat Fruit/seeds
Sparaganiaceae (bur-reed) Fruit/seeds
Zosteraceae (pondweed) Fruit/seeds
Alismataceae (arrowhead) Fruit/seeds
Cyperaceae (bulrush, sedge) Tubers
Annelida: Hirudinea (leeches) Unknown
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Unknown
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Unknown
Crustaceans Unknown
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Unknown
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Nymph
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Unknown
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Larva
Osteichthyes (bony fishes) See comments
Salientia (frogs, toads) All
Important:
Poaceae (grass): oats Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): rice Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): wheat Fruit/seeds
Crustaceans Unknown
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Unknown
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Nymph
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Unknown
Juvenile:
Poaceae (grass): oats Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): rice Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): wheat Fruit/seeds
Crustaceans Unknown
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Unknown
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Nymph
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Unknown
Adult:
Poaceae (grass): oats Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): rice Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): wheat Fruit/seeds
Crustaceans Unknown
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Unknown
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Nymph
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Unknown
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Larva
Salientia (frogs, toads) All

Comments on food habits: 
General: King rails are omnivorous but feed largely on animal matter *09,10*. Insects, mostly beetles, grasshoppers, aquatic bugs, and dragonfly nymphs are principle food items *10*. Crayfish are an important food item locally *04,09*. Seeds and other parts of plants are eaten casually but waste grain may be important during fall and winter *02, 04*.
Juvenile: Assume juveniles share food habits of adults *00*.
Adult: See [FH].


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: see comments
  • Water depth preference: < 1 ft.
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: mud flats
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: bogs
  • Aquatic habitats: embayments
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: ditches
  • Aquatic habitats: prairie potholes
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: oxbow
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: old field/water
  • Ecotones: crop field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Unknown

Limiting:

  • Water level: see comments
  • Water depth preference: < 1 ft.
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Unknown

Feeding juvenile:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water depth preference: < 1 ft.
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: mud flats
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: ditches
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Ecotones: old field/water
  • Ecotones: crop field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments

Resting juvenile:

  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: mud flats
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: ditches
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh

Feeding adult:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water depth preference: < 1 ft.
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: mud flats
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: ditches
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Ecotones: old field/water
  • Ecotones: crop field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments

Resting adult:

  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: mud flats
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: ditches
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh

Breeding adult:

  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: see comments
  • Water depth preference: < 1 ft.
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: mud flats
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: ditches
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Ecotones: old field/water
  • Ecotones: crop field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Typically a bird of freshwater marshes but known to inhabit or utilize a wide variety of habitats as long as terrain supports a reasonable amount of vegetation and is frequently wet *09*. Freshwater wetlands are a serious limiting factor to the king rail and all species that depend on them *09*. The affect of pesticides on the king rail or its food resources is unknown *09*.
Feeding juvenile: Juveniles leave nest quickly and either wait under cover of aquatic or dense vegetation for parents to deliver food or accompnay parents to feeding area *04*. See [FA].
Resting juvenile: Assume rest under cover of dense aquatic vegetation near nest. See *04*. *00*.
Feeding adult: Usually feed in areas where concealed by plant cover or in comparatively open areas where they are cryptic and cover is near *04*. Typically forage in shallow water approx. 2-3 inches but will forage in grassy or cultivated fields that occur near water, also mudflats and roadside ditches *04,08,09*.
Resting adult: Assume rest under cover of dense aquatic vegetation near nest during breeding season and under or near cover remainder of time *00*.
Breeding adult: Nest usually placed above or near water in clump or tussock of thick vegetation or freshwater plants *03,04*. Freshwater marshes, ponds, sloughs, marshy edges of lakes, sluggish streams and roadside ditches are popular nesting places *16*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *01,13*.

Physical description: Largest of north american rails. length 15-19 in.; wingspread 21-25 in.; ave. wt. for males 415.4 g; females 306.0 g. sexes alike but males average larger. King rails have a bright red- brown breast and strong barring on flanks; long slightly decurved brown-tipped yellow bill *02,04,14*.

Reproduction: Little data exists for Illinois. Most information is taken from Meanley 1969. King rails arrive from wintering grounds beginning around mid May *01*. In Iowa, nesting begins soon after arrival approx 1st week in May *04*. Nesting period varies with latitude, 3-4 mos. in north and longer at southern latitudes *04,09*. Males choose territory and initial occupation is indicated by mating call *04*. Their schedule of arrival and stage of courtship determines the size and choice of a territory *04*. Prenuptial courtship consists mainly of walking about with tail uplifted and white undertail coverts extended *04*. Calls and courtship feeding also performed *04*. Male selects nest site and is apparently more active in building nest than female *02,16*. Nest usually placed above water in clump or tussock of marsh grasses, rushes, or other aquatic vegetation *16*. Height of nest usu. depends on depth of water but typically 6-18 in. *04,16*. Nest is constructed of dead grasses, sedges or rushes with a base of decaying vegetation and a canopy of standing vegetation *04,16*. Meanley (1969) states that several brood nests without a canopy are constructed near the egg nest *04*. Ramp may be constructed from nest to water *02*. Copulation takes place near nest site before and during egg-laying *04*. Egg laying has been recorded in Illinois from 4 May-26 June *03*. Ave. clutch size is 10-12 (6-13); laid 1 a day *04,16*. Eggs are pale buff sparingly or irregularly spotted with browns; 41 x 30 mm (56) *04,16*. Incubation extends from 21-23 days and performed by both sexes *02,04,16*. In Ark. eggs hatched within a 24-28 hr. period *04*. Hatchlings are covered with black down and have a faint greenish sheen. For description of young and their development see *04*. Meanley (1969) reports that hatchilngs were able to leave nest in <1 hr. *04*. Young birds are fed within 2 hrs. of hatching. Young either follow their parents to feeding areas or remain concealed in grasses waiting for food to be delivered *04*. A pair may remain with its brood for over 1 month while staying within approx. 100 ft. Of nest for the first 3 wks. *04*. Young begin to fly at approx. 9 wks.; when dispersal occurs is unknown *02,09*. Apparently king rails are single brooded but possibly double-brooded in southern part of range *09,16*. First year birds usually do not breed *04*. Nesting success appears high in most areas; Ark. 75%; Iowa 67% *04,09*. Ave. number of eggs hatched per nest in Ark. was 9.9 *04*.

Behavior: The king rail is territorial holding both nesting and apparently feeding territories. Meanley (1969) reported a pair defending a specific feeding area 20 ft. Square approx. 40 yds. away from their nest *04*. It is known rails have favored feeding sites i.e., muskrat houses or piles of drift debris. For more information see *04*. The schedule of arrival and stage of courtship determine the size and quality of a males breeding territory *04*. Initial territories are known to diminish in size partly due to 1) pressure from other courting males, 2) burning or disappearance of cover within original territory or 3) the satisfaction of requirements for nesting, particularly plenty of water and ample food *04*. Both sexes defend. Reported densities include 25 males/100 yds. In river marsh, 30 males/100 yds. In inland marsh, 3 nests in 5.39 acres of marsh *04*. The king rail is restricted to the humid freshwater region of the eastern U.S. *09*. The Mississippi River Valley is recognized as 1 of 2 important flyways for this species *04,09*. Two major migration periods of the king rail are April and May & August and Sept. *09*. Apparently males and femlaes are known to return to the same areas of the same marshes for several consecutive years to breed *04,09*. It is unclear if the same pairs mate each year.

Limiting factors: Like all species associated with wetlands, the most important limiting factor that can be suggested is habitat destruction *09*. Bateman (1972) reports the bulk of mortality among king rail populations results from aerial collisions, predation, severe weather, disease and parasites. No reasons were given *09*. Meanley (1969) also suggests automoblies and muskrat traps as mortality factors *04*. The king rail has a wide variety of natural enemies including raccoons, mink, fox, snakes, snapping turtles, barred and great-horned owls, feral cats and hawks *03,04*. The king rail is not considered a game bird because of its low numbers and infrequent sitings *15*. Because Illinois is on the fringe of the king rails distributional range few migrants are known to pass through Illinois.

Population parameters: Because the king rail and its broods are inconspicuous, population parameters are difficult to obtain and virtually unknown. In Illinois the population is apparently declining possibly because of its association with wetlands *01,09*. Only Meanley (1969) has estimated that survival of fledglings to 2 wks. of age at approx. 50% *04*. Because of its low priority as a game bird the king rail's needs are not of immediate concern but this species should benefit from efforts made to protect wetland habitat of ducks and geese in the eastern half of the U.S. *09*. Key fields for research include population densities, productivity, mortality rates, banding data and pesticide relationships *09*. For management recommendations see *09*.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Maintaining natural areas and nature preserves
  • Maintaining unique or special habitat features (wetlands, snags, caves, cliffs, talises, etc.)
  • Preserving sensitive species habitat
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • Controlling pollution
  • Controlling pollution in aquatic habitats
  • Developing/maintaining lakes and ponds
  • Developing/maintaining wetlands
  • Creating/maintaining wetlands from non-wetlands
  • Developing/maintaining mudflats
  • Maintaining bogs
  • Protecting existing wetlands
  • Restoration of wetlands (return flooded or drained areas to previous wetland conditions)
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Developing/maintaining ditchbank vegetation to prevent erosion and provide riparian habitat
  • Developing/maintaining streamside vegetation to prevent erosion and provide riparian habitat
  • Revegetating streambanks using grass-forb-sedge-tree mixtures
  • No-till farming
  • Retaining crop residue (over winter)
  • Seeding aquatic plants
  • Estimating/maintaining nesting and escape cover

Adverse:

  • Locating, designing, developing, and constructing roads
  • Recreational development
  • Channelization
  • Dredging
  • Controlling aquatic plants
  • Draining ponds/lakes
  • Draining wetlands
  • Removing bank vegetation
  • Clean farming
  • Strip mining

Existing:

  • Performing special survey prior to prescription

Comments on management practices:
Because little is known about the king rail in Illinois only habitat protection is recognized as essential *09*. The effects of pesticides and general population parameters need further study. The king rail is no longer considered a game species in Illinois because of low numbers and infrequent sitings *15*. For recommendations see *09*.

 


REFERENCES

0. MALMBORG, P.L. 1984. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV., 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, ILL. 61820. PHONE (217)333-6846.

1. BOHLEN, H. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUS. POP. SCI. SER., VOL. IX. 156 P.

2. TERRES, J. 1980. AUDUBON SOCIETY: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. ALFRED KNOPF, NEW YORK. 1109 P.

3. BENT, A.C. 1926. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN MARSH BIRDS. U.S. NATL. MUS. BULL. NO. 135.

4. MEANLEY, BROOKE. 1969. NATURAL HISTORY OF THE KING RAIL. NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 67. 108 P.

5. ALSOP, F. 1970. KING RAIL IN GREAT SMOKEY MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK. MIGRANT 41(3):36-64.

6. ALSOP, F. 1970. KING RAILS IN KNOX COUNTY. MIGRANT 41(3):64-65.

7. ALSOP, F. 1970. KING RAILS IN BLOUNT COUNTY. MIGRANT 41(3):65.

8. LOW, G. & W. MANSELL. 1983. NORTH AMERICAN MARSH BIRDS. HARPER & ROW, PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK. 189 P.

9. BATEMAN, H.A. 1977. KING RAIL (RALLUS ELEGANS). PAGES 93-104. IN GLEN C. SANDERSON (EDITOR). MANAGEMENT OF MIGRATORY SHORE AND UPLAND GAME BIRDS IN NORTH AMERICA. INTERNATIONAL ASSOC. OF FISH & WILDLIFE AGENCIES, WASHINGTON, D.C. 358 P.

10. MARTIN, A., H. ZIM AND A. NELSON. 1951. AMERICAN WILDLIFE AND PLANTS. MCGRAW-HILL BOOK CO., NEW YORK. 500 P.

11. ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH. 61. WILDLIFE. ART. II. PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES, 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN. 123 PP.

12. BERGER, T., A. NEUNER AND S. EDWARDS. 1979. DIRECTORY OF FEDERALLY CONTROLLED SPECIES. ASSOC. OF SYSTEMATIC COLLECTIONS. LAWRENCE, KN.

13. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1982. THIRTY-FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. SUPPLEMENT AUK 99(3).

14. PETERSON, R. 1980. A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS. 4 ED. HOUGHTON-MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 384 P.

15. ILLINOIS JOINT COMMITTEE ON ADMINISTRATIVE RULES. 1983. ILLINOIS ADMINISTRATIVE CODE. TITLE 17. CHAPTER 1. PART 740. SECRETARY OF STATE OFFICE. SPRINGFIELD.

16. HARRISON, H.H. 1979. A FIELD GUIDE TO WESTERN BIRD'S NESTS. HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 279 P.

17. KLEEN, V.M. 1984. FIELD NOTES: BREEDING SEASON. ILILNOIS AUDUBON BULL. 207:39-45.

18. KLEEN, V.M. 1983. FIELD NOTES: BREEDING SEASON. ILLINOIS AUDUBON BULL. 203:25-39.

 


 

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